This site is the most comprehensive on the web devoted to trans history and biography. Well over 1700 persons worthy of note, both famous and obscure, are discussed in detail, and many more are mentioned in passing.

There is a detailed Index arranged by vocation, doctor, activist group etc. There is also a Place Index arranged by City etc. This is still evolving.

In addition to this most articles have one or more labels at the bottom. Click one to go to similar persons. There is a full list of labels at the bottom of the right-hand sidebar. There is also a search box at the top left. Enjoy exploring!

30 June 2022

The murderers amongst us

I recently noticed an upsurge in my top-ten articles of those convicted of murder, and was wondering why.

Then I discovered this terfy page. Several of the comments added by JLeGuin (the original poster) link to articles in my encyclopedia.

TIM is one of those terfy terms, an acronym for ‘Trans Identified Male’ meaning a trans woman.

GVWW is not an apologia for trans persons. I attempt to report truthfully whatever I find. It is the case that there are some trans murderers. As there are multiple millions of trans persons that is not surprising. Pick any other group - academics, shopkeepers, immigrants, housewives, musicians, actors, computer programmers, lesbians etc, and you can compile a list of those charged with and even convicted of murder or manslaughter.

Some of the ones that JLEGuin failed to mention: Dante Gill, David Petillo, Pipás Pista, Amelia Gourley, Harry Crawford, Amara Vadillo, Frank Spisak, Bill Allen, Caitlyn Jenner.

It would also help if JLeGuin bothered to get his/her facts right. In particular it is not true that Synthia China-Blast was convicted of rape. By all accounts she is a Kinsey 6 and has never even had sex with a female.

For comparison here are some lists of musicians and other celebrities who have been charged with or convicted of murder:

IMDB(Celebrities who have killed someone)

Listverse(10 Rock and Metal Musicians who killed Someone)

The Top Tens(Top 10 Musicians who killed Someone)

Listverse(10 Murderous College Professors)

Graveyard Shift(10 Teachers who turned into Infamous Criminals)

Unknown Gender History(Lesbian Serial Killers)

28 June 2022

The DSM - Part III: comments

Part I: history of the APA 
Part III: comments


Homosexuality never was in the DSMs in the way that Transsexuality and Transvestism later were. DSMs I and II had simple lists of Sexual Deviations that included Homosexuality and Transvestitism along with Fetishism, Pedophilia, Exhibitionism, Voyeurism, Sadism and Masochism without giving diagnostic criteria or any other comments. As the campaign to get Homosexuality delisted happened at this time, the delisting was easier.

Transsexualism/Gender Identity Disorder (GID)/Gender Dysphoria (GD) is not mentioned at all in DSM I or DSM II.

The 1973 decision to remove Homosexuality from the DSM was because other ‘sexual deviations’ “regularly caused subjective distress or were associated with generalized impairment in social effectiveness or functioning” but Homosexuality did not. There were always at least some trans persons who likewise did not suffer such distress or impairment. However it was not until DSM V in 2013 Criterion B “clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning” that the definition of GID/GD was restricted to those who actually need therapy.

In the 1960s and 1970s Virginia Prince had advocated that the word ‘transvestite’ be restricted to heterosexual transvestites. This was accepted in DSM III 1980. However to her chagrin, in DSM III-R 1987 Transvestism was renamed as Transvestic Fetishism. Prince had always drawn a clear line between Transvestism and Fetishism but the DSM had removed that line.

The restriction of the term ‘Transvestism’ to heterosexual males as a form of sexual excitement is objectionable as there are many other forms of transvesting. However it was this particular subset who were most likely to seek psychotherapy.

Some reacted to this restriction of the term by referring to gay and female transvestites as cross-dressers. While the Princian groups also later used ‘cross-dresser’ for themselves, the DSM used it for both transvestites and transsexuals. Neither usage has prevailed.

The 302 code was first introduced in DSM II 1968 for ‘Sexual Deviations’. While Gender Identity Disorder/Gender Dysphoria were distinguished from Transvestism/Transvestic Fetishism/Transvestic Disorder – especially in DSM III and DSM V (but not in DSM IV) – when they were separated by hundreds of pages, they continued to share the 302 code.

The word ‘autogynephilic’ appears only in DSM V 2013. Note that it is used only as a variation of Transvestic Disorder. There is no suggestion of there being autogynephilic transsexuals.

Is Gender Dysphoria the same as Gender Identity Disorder? Some regard it as simply a renaming. Others regard GD as no longer a Disorder, but only as a category retained for billing US insurance companies. The claim is that GD is not a Disorder in itself, but distress caused by gender incongruence. The wording is certainly more polite, but remember that the term Gender Dysphoria was coined by psychiatrist Norman Fisk in 1972 because Transsexualism was losing its medical connotations, and he wanted to remedicalize the concept.

In saying that Gender Dysphoria is “a marked incongruence between one’s experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender” the DSM still ignores and denies the lack of acceptance and outright hostility that many trans persons encounter.

Some transitioning trans persons do need therapy and for others a requirement of therapy (especially from therapists who have not themselves transitioned) is at best an irritant. Even DSM V does not admit this, but the B criteria for Gender Dysphoria “the condition is associated with clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning” does actually imply that those trans persons who have been able to arrange a continuation of work, and are receiving hormones, electrolysis etc as required and desired are not Gender Dysphoric and do not need therapy.

As we find in the work of Anne Vitale, early transitioners and alumni from the gay or lesbian scene often do not require therapy (although peer support is good) while late transitioners who have spent decades conforming to their birth gender often suffer from what she calls Gender Deprivation Anxiety Disorder (GEDAD).

Vitale has never been on a DSM work group, and come to that - although there are several noted psychologists, psychiatrists and sexologists who have transitioned - no trans person has been on DSM work groups.

The DSM dropping of ‘transsexual’ for GID and then GD has interacted of course with language political correctness where we are being told that we should not distinguish Transsexual from Transvestite - that we are all Transgender. Transsexual is said to be too clinical. However it remains necessary to designate surgery-track trans persons, and far too often these are being designated as Gender Dysphoric - Fisk’s even more clinical term.

If the retention of Gender Dysphoria is only for US insurance billing, it strenghens the argument that the DSM should not be used in other countries.

The APA has equivocated on whether Intersex persons can be Transsexual/GID/GD. In DSM III “In physical intersex the individual may have a disturbance in gender identity. However, the presence of abnormal sexual structures rules out the diagnosis of Transsexualism.” In DSM IV “The disturbance is not concurrent with a physical intersex condition.” In DSM V the physician is to note if a Gender Dysphoric person has a “disorder of sex development (DSD)”. The usage of the DSD terminology indicates that this was not decided in consultation with Intersex activists as almost all of them reject the term. However this does admit that a person may be both Intersex and GD.

It was a problem in the 1970s and 1980s that cishet psychiatrists and sexologists did not seem to be able to distinguish trans kids from Gender Non-Conforming children. This was openly admitted in Richard Green’s The "Sissy Boy Syndrome" and the Development of Homosexuality. Hopefully that problem is now in the past.

27 June 2022

The DSM - Part II: reading the 7 versions of the DSM

Part I: history of the APA 
Part II:  reading the 7 versions of the DSM 
Part III: comments

DSM I, 1952 145 pages

There is no section for Homosexuality or anything trans.

However under *000-x50 Personality Trait Disturbance* we find:

*000-x63 Sexual deviation*

This diagnosis is reserved for deviant sexuality which is not symptomatic of more extensive syndromes, such as schizophrenic and obsessional reactions.

The term includes most of the cases formerly classed as "psychopathic personality with pathologic sexuality". The diagnosis will specify the type of the pathologic behavior, such as homosexuality, transvestism, pedophilia, fetishism and sexual sadism (including rape, sexual assault, mutilation). p38-9.

That is all. No details about Homosexuality or Transvestism.

There is no mention of Transsexualism at all - presumably transsexuals were regarded as a type of either Homosexuality or Transvestism.

DSM II, 1968 - Transvestism 136 pages

No significant change, but now recategorized:

V. Personality Disorders and Certain Other Non-Psychotic Mental Disorders

301 Personality disorders

302 Sexual Deviations

.0 Homosexuality

.1 Fetishism

.2 Pedophilia

.3 Transvestitism

.4 Exhibitionism

.5 Voyeurism

.6 Sadism

.7 Masochism

.8 Other sexual deviation

.9 Unspecified sexual deviation

303 Alcoholism

304 Drug Dependence

See p10, 44, 79

Gays and lesbians certainly objected to being bundled into this list and were agitating that the word ‘homosexuality’ be removed. This was supported by enough psychiatrists, psychologists and psychoanalysts in the younger generation, some of whom were part of the anti-psychiatry movement of the 1960s that had a wider criticism of what psychiatry had become. Homosexuality was a major topic at the 1971, 1972 and 1973 annual APA meetings. Robert Spitzer, who chaired a subcommittee looking into the issue, “reviewed the characteristics of the various mental disorders and concluded that, with the exception of homosexuality and perhaps some of the other ‘sexual deviations’, they all regularly caused subjective distress or were associated with generalized impairment in social effectiveness or functioning”. Having arrived at this novel definition of mental disorder, the Nomenclature Committee agreed that homosexuality per se was not one.

Several other APA committees and deliberative bodies then reviewed and accepted their work and recommendations. As a result, in December 1973, APA’s Board of Trustees voted to remove homosexuality from the DSM. Some psychiatrists, mainly from the psychoanalytic community, however, objected to the decision. They petitioned APA to hold a referendum asking the entire membership to vote either in support of or against the decision. The decision to remove was upheld by a 58% majority of 10,000 voting members.

A revision of DSM-II removed Homosexuality, but brought in a new diagnosis: Sexual Orientation Disturbance (SOD) for those who wanted to change.

DSM III, 1980 507 pages – Transsexuality as Gender Identity Disorder


Anke A. Ehrhardt, Diane S. Fordney-Settlage, Richard Friedman, Paul Gebhard, Richard Green, Helen S. Kaplan, Judith B. Kuriansky, Harold I. Lief, Jon K. Meyer, John Money, Ethel Person, Lawrence Sharpe, Robert L. Spitzer, Robert J. Stoller, Arthur Zitrin.

Homosexuality had been removed. Its replacement Sexual Orientation Disturbance (SOD) (where the patient wishes to be cured) was renamed Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality.

In compensation transsexualism is added in for the first time, and given the same 302 code as the Paraphilias.

For the first time the term ‘cross-dressing’ is used. It is used for both Transsexualism and Transvestism.

The section number 302 is renamed *Psychosexual Disorders*

The first of these is 

Gender identity disorders: p261-266

302.5x Transsexualism

302.60 Gender identity disorder of childhood

302.85 Atypical gender identity disorder

“Differential diagnosis. In effeminate homosexuality the individual displays behaviors characteristic of the opposite sex. However, such individuals have no desire to be of the other anatomic sex. In physical intersex the individual may have a disturbance in gender identity. However, the presence of abnormal sexual structures rules out the diagnosis of Transsexualism.

Other individuals with a disturbed gender identity may, in isolated periods of stress, wish to belong to the other sex and to be rid of their own genitals. In such cases the diagnosis Atypical Gender Identity Disorder should be considered, since the diagnosis of Transsexualism is made only when the disturbance has been continuous for at least two years. In Schizophrenia, there may be delusions of belonging to the other sex, but this is rare. The insistence by an indi- vidual with Transsexualism that he or she is of the other sex is, strictly speaking, not a delusion since what is invariably meant is that the individual feels like a member of the other sex rather than a true belief that he or she is a member of the other sex.”

Note that Transsexualism and Intersex are regarded as mutually exclusive categories.

The term Gender Identity Disorder (GID) was thereafter treated as a thing by many writers, mainly as a synonym for transsexualism - although GID of childhood could have been likewise treated.

The following five criteria are given for identifying a transsexual: a) Sense of discomfort and inappropriateness about one's anatomical sex. b) Wish to be rid of one's own genitals and to live as a member of the other sex. c) The disturbance has been continuous (not limited to periods of stress) for at least two years. d) Absence of physical intersex or genetic abnormality. e) Not due to another mental disorder, such as schizophrenia.' The 'x' at the end of the category code is to record prior sexual history: 1=asexual, 2=homosexual (same anatomical sex), 3=heterosexual (other anatomical sex), 0=unspecified.

Transsexualism prevalence is specified as “Apparently rare”

Children diagnosed at this time with “Gender identity disorder of childhood” were more gender non-conforming (GNC) than pre-transsexual. In practice, as would be shown in Richard Green’s The Sissy Boy Syndrome, in 1987, they were most likely to grow up to be gay. So this was in effect another residual gay category.

The Term ‘Paraphilia” to replace ‘Sexual Deviation” is introduced of which nine are listed, all with a 302 code. While Homosexuality is no longer listed, Transvestism and Fetishism remain and are discussed rather than just listed.

Fetishism (non-transvestic) has a diagnostic criterion: “The fetish objects are not limited to articles of female clothing used in cross-dressing (as in Transvestic Fetishism) or devices designed for the purpose of tactile genital stimulation (e.g., a vibrator).”

The Diagnostic Criteria for *302.30 Transvestism* (p269-270) are given as:

A. Recurrent and persistent cross-dressing by a *heterosexual male*.

B. Use of cross-dressing for the purpose of sexual excitement, at least initially in the course of the disorder.

C. Intense frustration when the cross-dressing is interfered with.

D. Does not meet the criteria for Transsexualism.

DSM III-R, 1987 598 pages

Subcommitte on Gender Identity Disorders

Anke Ehrhardt, Ethel Person, David McWhirter, Robert L. Spitzer, Heino Meyer-Bahlburg, Janet B. W. Williams, John Money, Kenneth J. Zucker.

Subcommittee on Paraphilias

Gene Abel, David Barlow, Judith Becker, Fred Berlin, Park Elliott Dietz, Raymond A. Knight, Vernon Quinsey, Robert L. Spitzer, Janet B. W. Williams.

Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality was removed. It was obvious to psychiatrists that it was the result of earlier political compromises and that EDH did not meet the definition of a disorder in the new nosology. What about people who were ego-dystonic about their race or their height or their job?

A new section, Gender Identity Disorders in introduced separated from the Sexual Disorders section 300 pages later. However both sections continue to share the 302 code.

Gender Identity Disorders (p71-78) 

is now divided into:

302.60 Gender identity disorder of childhood

302.50 Transsexualism

302.85 Gender identity disorder of adolescence or adulthood, nontranssexual type (GIDAANT)

302.85 Gender identity disorder not otherwise specified.

Transsexualism is defined as:

A. Persistent discomfort and sense of inappropriateness about one’s assigned sex.

B. Persistent preoccupation for at least two years, with getting rid of one’s primary and secondary sex characteristics and acquiring the sex characteristics of the other sex.

C. The person has reached puberty.

Prevalence: “The estimated prevalence is one per 30,000 for males and one per 100,000 for females”. These prevalences were widely cited at the time, and occasionally are still repeated in the 2020s despite much evidence of greater frequency.

GIDAANT is defined as:

A. Persistent or recurrent discomfort and sense of inappropriateness about one's assigned sex. B. Persistent or recurrent cross-dressing in the role of the other sex, either in fantasy or actuality, but not for the purpose of sexual excitement (as in Transvestic Fetishism). C. No persistent preoccupation (for at least two years) with getting rid of one's primary and secondary sex characteristics and acquiring the sex characteristics of the other sex (as in Transsexualism). D. The person has reached puberty.

Gender identity disorder not otherwise specified is defined by examples:

(1) children with persistent cross-dressing without the other criteria for Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood (2) adults with transient, stress-related cross-dressing behavior (3) adults with the clinical features of Transsexualism of less than two years' duration (4) people who have a persistent preoccupation with castration or peotomy without a desire to acquire the sex characteristics of the other sex

Sexual Disorders: Paraphilias

Transvestism is renamed 302.30 Transvestic Fetishism (p288-289) , and is defined as:

A. Over a period of at least six months, in a heterosexual male, recurrent intense sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies involving cross-dressing. B. The person has acted on these urges, or is markedly distressed by them. C. Does not meet the criteria for Gender Identity Disorder of Adolescence or Adulthood, Nontranssexual Type, or Transsexualism.

DSM IV, 1994 915 pages – Gender Identity Disorder

DSM Work Group for Sexual Disorders

Chester W. Schmidt, chairperson, Raul Schiavi, Leslie Schover, Taylor Seagraves, Thomas Nathan Wise

302 Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders have now been recombined. Sexual Disfunctions is followed by Paraphilias is followed by Gender Identity Disorders. The Term ‘transsexualism’ is no longer used. The Term Gender Identity Disorder now subsumes three DSM-III-R diagnoses: Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood; Gender Identity Disorder of Adolescence or Adulthood, Nontranssexual Type (GIDAANT); and Transsexualism.

302.3 Transvestic Fetishism: (p530-531)

A. Over a period of at least 6 months, in a heterosexual male, recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving cross-dressing. B. The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Specify if: With Gender Dysphoria: if the person has persistent discomfort with gender role or identity.

Gender Identity Disorder: (p532-538)

302.6 Gender Identity Disorder in Children 302.85 Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents or Adults

302.6 Gender Identity Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

A. A strong and persistent cross-gender identification (not merely a desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being the other sex).

In children, the disturbance is manifested by four (or more) of the following: 

(1) repeatedly stated desire to be, or insistence that he or she is, the other sex 

(2) in boys, preference for cross-dressing or simulating female attire; in girls, insistence on wearing only stereotypical masculine clothing 

(3) strong and persistent preferences for cross-sex roles in make-believe play or persistent fantasies of being the other sex 

(4) intense desire to participate in the stereotypical games and pastimes of the other sex

(5) strong preference for playmates of the other sex

In adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by symptoms such as a stated desire to be the other sex, frequent passing as the other sex, desire to live or be treated as the other sex, or the conviction that he or she has the typical feelings and reactions of the other sex.

B. Persistent discomfort with his or her sex or sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex.

In children, the disturbance is manifested by any of the following: in boys, assertion that his penis or testes are disgusting or will disappear or assertion that it would be better not to have a penis, or aversion toward rough-and-tumble play and rejection of male stereotypical toys, games, and activities; in girls, rejection of urinating in a sitting position, assertion that she has or will grow a penis, or assertion that she does not want to grow breasts or menstruate, or marked aversion toward normative feminine clothing.

In adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by symptoms such as preoccupation with getting rid of primary and secondary sex characteristics (e. g., request for hormones, surgery, or other procedures to physically alter sexual characteristics to simulate the other sex) or belief that he or she was born the wrong sex.

C. The disturbance is not concurrent with a physical intersex condition.

D. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Code based on current age: 302.6 Gender Identity Disorder in Children 302.85 Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents or Adults

302.6 Gender Identity Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

This category is included for coding disorders in gender identity that are not classifiable as a specific Gender Identity Disorder. Examples include

  1. Intersex conditions (e.g., androgen insensitivity syndrome or congenital adrenal hyperplasia) and accompanying gender dysphoria

  2. Transient, stress-related cross-dressing behavior

  3. Persistent preoccupation with castration or penectomy without a desire to acquire the sex characteristics of the other sex

DSM-IV-TR 2000 955 pages

DSM Work Group for Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders

Chester W. Schmidt, R. Taylor Segraves, Thomas Nathan Wise, Kenneth J. Zucker .

As in DSM-IV, sex and gender are grouped together. Sexual Disfunctions is followed by Paraphilias is followed by Gender Identity Disorders.

No significant difference from DSM-IV.

DSM-V, 2013 991 pages- Gender Dysphoria

DSM Work Group for Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders:

Kenneth J. Zucker, Chair, Lori Brotto, Text Coordinator, Martin P. Kafka, Irving M. Binik, Richard B. Krueger, Ray M. Blanchard, Niklas Langström, Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis, Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, Jack Drescher, Friedemann Pfäfflin, Cynthia A. Graham, Robert Taylor Segraves.

As in DSM-3-R, Gender Dysphoria and the Paraphilic Disorders are separated again (by over 200 pages).

Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is replaced by Gender Dysphoria in Adolescents and Adults, which is defined as distress related to the incongruence between assigned gender and gender identity. Gender Dysphoria in Children has more stringent requirements with behavioural criteria. These two were moved to their own section to retain access to insurance coverage rather than being removed . The new term “is more descriptive than the previous DSM-IV term gender identity disor­der and focuses on dysphoria as the clinical problem, not identity per se.”

Transvestic Fetishism has been renamed as Transvestic Disorder; Intersex has been replaced by the contentious term Disorders of Sex Development, thereby introducing another term using ‘disorder’ as it removes the term GID.

Gender Dysphoria (p451-459)

302.85 Gender Dysphoria in Adolescents and Adults

A. A marked incongruence between one’s experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender, of at least 6 months’ duration, as manifested by at least two of the following:

  1. A marked incongruence between one’s experienced/expressed gender and pri­mary and/or secondary sex characteristics (or in young adolescents, the antici­pated secondary sex characteristics).

  2. A strong desire to be rid of one’s primary and/or secondary sex characteristics be­cause of a marked incongruence with one’s experienced/expressed gender (or in young adolescents, a desire to prevent the development of the anticipated second­ary sex characteristics).

  3. A strong desire for the primary and/or secondary sex characteristics of the other gender.

  4. A strong desire to be of the other gender (or some alternative gender different from one’s assigned gender).

  5. A strong desire to be treated as the other gender (or some alternative gender dif­ferent from one’s assigned gender).

  6. A strong conviction that one has the typical feelings and reactions of the other gen­der (or some alternative gender different from one’s assigned gender).

B. The condition is associated with clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

While in earlier versions of the DSM, one did not have GID if one were physically intersex, now the physician is merely to specify if:

“With a disorder of sex development (e.g., a congenital adrenogenital disorder such as 255.2 [E25.0] congenital adrenal hyperplasia or 259.50 [E34.50] androgen insensitivity syndrome).”

302.6 Gender Dysphoria in Children

Is very similar except that there are 8 items under A. and at least 6 must be manifested by the child.

302.3 Transvestic Disorder (p701-704)

“ Transvestic disorder occurs in heterosexual (or bisexual) adoles­cent and adult males (rarely in females) for whom cross-dressing behavior generates sex­ual excitement and causes distress and/or impairment without drawing their primary gender into question. It is occasionally accompanied by gender dysphoria. An individual with transvestic disorder who also has clinically significant gender dysphoria can be given both diagnoses. In many cases of late-onset gender dysphoria in gynephilic natal males, transvestic behavior with sexual excitement is a precursor.”

Defined as:

A. Over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent and intense sexual arousal from cross­-dressing, as manifested by fantasies, urges, or behaviors. B. The fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors cause clinically significant distress or impair­ment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is noted: “The presence of fetishism decreases the likelihood of gender dysphoria in men with trans­vestic disorder. The presence of autogynephilia increases the likelihood of gender dyspho­ria in men with transvestic disorder.” and “Transvestic disorder in men is often accompanied by autogynephilia (i.e., a male's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman). Autogynephilic fantasies and behaviors may focus on the idea of exhibiting female phys­iological functions (e.g., lactation, menstruation), engaging in stereotypically feminine be­havior (e.g., knitting), or possessing female anatomy (e.g., breasts).”

Prevalence: “The prevalence of transvestic disorder is unknown. Transvestic disorder is rare in males and extremely rare in females. Fewer than 3% of males report having ever been sexually aroused by dressing in women's attire. The percentage of individuals who have cross­-dressed with sexual arousal more than once or a few times in their lifetimes would be even lower. The majority of males with transvestic disorder identify as heterosexual, although some individuals have occasional sexual interaction with other males, especially when they are cross-dressed.”

Given the DSM definition of Transvestic Disorder, this estimate of Prevalence may be too high, but of course if we consider all types of cross-dressing, it is too low.


  • Dylan Scholinski. The Last Time I Wore a Dress. Riverhead, 1998.

  • Kelley Winters. Gender Madness in American Psychiatry: Essays from the struggle for Dignity., 2008.

  • Susan Cooke. “Why GID Must Be Removed From the DSM”. Women Born Transsexual, September 2, 2009. Online.

  • Cristan Williams. Disco Sexology. Online.

  • Jack Molay. “On how American psychiatry persecutes transgender crossdreamers and crossdressers”. Crossdreamers, October 24, 2012. Online.

  • Jack Drescher. "Out of DSM: Depathologizing Homosexuality”. Behavioral Sciences, 5, 4, 2015. Online.

26 June 2022

The DSM - Part I: history of the APA

Part I: history of the APA 
Part III: comments

This is about the American Psychiatric Association (APA), not to be confused with the American Psychological Association (APA), the American Philological Association (APA) or the American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA).

The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane, also known as The Superintendents' Association, was organized in Philadelphia in October, 1844 at a meeting of 13 superintendents, making it the first professional medical speciality organization in the U.S. What became its organ, The American Journal of Insanity (AJI) was also first published in June 1844 by the Utica State Hospital. It was officially acquired by the Association in 1892.

The American Medical Association was organised in in 1847, and in 1854 established a Committee on Insanity which lasted until 1867 when a psychology section was organised. Merger of the AMA and the Superintendents Association was discussed over the years but never happened.

In 1875 the American Neurological Association was formed mainly bringing together physicians who had treated brain-damaged soldiers in the US civil war. Many neurologists distrusted the Medical Superintendents, thought that the asylums were mismanaged, and in some states called on the legislature to investigate the asylums.

The Association of Medical Superintendents changed its name in 1892 to the American Medico-Psychological Association. In 1894, for its 50th anniversary, the the American Medico-Psychological Association invited Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, a prominent Philadelphia neurologist to address the annual meeting. After querying a number of his colleagues, Dr. Mitchell delivered a scathing address to the superintendents. He said that they had isolated themselves from medicine and they sought no new scientific information through their work, their medical records were inadequate, and their educational efforts among the profession were minimal. The superintendents made little reply to the address.

The American Medico-Psychological Association again changed its name in 1921 to the present name, American Psychiatric Association (APA). In the same year the American Journal of Insanity** was renamed The American Journal of Psychiatry.

In 1917 they developed a new guide for mental hospitals called The Statistical Manual for the Use of Institutions for the Insane. This guide included twenty-two diagnoses. This evolved into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) from 1952 onwards and which the APA continues to maintain. It has a core use for billing within the US medical insurance system, but has become the authoritative list of mental disorders which controversially once did include homosexuality, and still does include trans conditions. This organization has laid down rules as to what constitutes a transvestite, a transsexual etc. These are to be found in its DSMs.

The DSM has become a manual of mental conditions, and is used more widely, even outside the US, and as such is regarded by some as a reification of socially disapproved thoughts and behaviours as disorders.

  • "Diseases of the Mind: Highlights in American Psychiatry Through 1900". US National Library of Medicine. Online.

EN.Wikipedia(American Psychiatric Association, Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane)

22 June 2022

Three other trans persons who transitioned under the aegis of Magnus Hirschfeld

Hertha Haase

This photograph was published in the Berliner Morgenpost 28th March 1930.

Some said that she was the best Damenschneider (dressmaker) in Berlin

She had completion surgery in 1932 under the auspices of the SDP (Sozialdemokratische Partei). This Magnus always considered his greatest triumph, to finally get government sponsership.


Elsa Gidlow Residence – NYC LGBT Historic Sites Project

In the 1920s, the Canadian poet Elsa Gidlow visited Berlin, and visited the Institute.

“We talked with Hirschfeld for a while. He exhibited one of his ‘cases’ to us: a snub-nosed young man of twenty-two or so with large, dirty hands. He was dressed in woolen knickers, heavy shoes and stockings and a coarse lumberjack shirt. 'This young lady': said Hirschfeld, 'is Charlotte. She is a radio operator. She wants me to use my influence with the authorities to have her name changed to Peter!' ”

++‘knickers’ would be knickerbockers or plus fours and not panties; stockings would be long socks suitably associated with knickerbockers.

  • Elsa Gidlow. *Elsa: I Come with My Songs: The Autobiography of Elsa Gidlow. Booklegger Press, 1985: 226.

Lotte Engleman

A Dutch pianist.

"So, in 1921, back to Germany Charlotte [Charlaque] went, working Hirschfeld's reception desk and assisting patients with clothing needs and living arrangements. Due to this, she met many others similar to her, including Lili Elbe and Lotte Engleman."

  • Gwendolyn Ann Smith. “History Lesson”. Transgender Tapestry, 89 Spring 2000: 30.

07 June 2022

A Rereading of Bodyshock: the truth about changing sex , 1987

Part I: life

Part II: book

  • Liz Hodgkinson. Bodyshock: the truth about changing sex. Columbus, 1987.

The book is dedicated to Judy Cousins.

The term ‘sex-change’ was then in common use, and will be used in this review as it is used in the book.


This book was written for the general public in 1987. Statements like "But there is no doubt that a certain proportion of people do want to change their sex, and will go to literally any lengths to achieve this" may seem otiose today, but that was not the case at that time.

Hodgkinson makes a boo-boo on p9: "Since the first operation, which was performed by Dr Christian Hamburger .. .". Hamburger was of course the endocrinologist, not the surgeon. Nor was it the first, and on the next page, she does mention the earlier surgeries by Harold Gillies, but not the pioneering surgeries in Berlin the early 1930s.

She dismisses the idea that one is trans because mother wanted a child of the other sex, and the dominant mother/passive or absent father aetiologies. She prefers the foetal hormonal wash theory -- a theory that is still in favour 35 years later without much extra evidence to support it.

She emphasises that generally trans persons are not mentally ill, but if they are treatment is refused. "Most of the people whose stories are told in this book are positive, happy, life enhancing people -- at least, after the operation. All have remarkable, sometimes barely believable, stories to tell, even when they have not become famous in any way. There is no danger that anybody can 'catch' transsexuality from coming into contact with such people. The condition is not hereditary and does not run in families. It is something which seems to come out of nowhere and there is no blueprint for it, no set of circumstances that would predispose to the condition."

With an extra 35 years of research, we could niggle and quibble with that statement, but it is still basically true.

She gives the one in 10,000 estimate for transsexuality. Again this was 1987. This is one aspect where we do now have much better information.

Chp 1: What is Transexxualism?

This chapter is mainly an account of trans across the centuries to show that transsexuality is nothing new. Hodgkinson mixes myth and history, Venus Castina and Tiresias. From the Bible she takes only eunuchs -- she also uses the term 'eunuch' for the gallae who castrated themselves in devotion to Cybele. This conflates the voluntary and the involuntary and is confusing. She finds a quote in Philo, and tells of Sporus (again involuntary). A quick mention of the hijra in India, and then she is on to DeChoisy and d'Eon ("who allegedly posed as a serious rival to Madame de Pompadour for the favours of Louis XV" -- really?) She has one sentence on American Natives, and repeats the old saw about Elizabeth Tudor having the "heart and mental powers of a man" - but says nothing about the Bisley Boy hypothesis. She presents Pope Joan as historical.

When she mentions Man into Woman the unreliable autobiography of Lili Elbe (GVWW), she maintains a healthy skepticism: "The whole story is vague and highly suspect". However, on Roberta Betty Cowell (GVWW) she uncritically repeats Cowell's claim that her sex was wrongly assigned at birth and that she is not really transsexual. How she was able to father two daughters is not mentioned -- presumably because Liz knew her personally by that time. She does correct this in her 2015 article for The Telegraph.

After brief mentions of Christine Jorgensen, Georgina Turtle and April Ashley and their autobiographies, Liz laments that there were no autobiographies by trans men. However there had been Robert Allen's But for the Grace, 1954 and Mario Martino's Emergence in 1977.

Birth Certificates

I really must disagree with the paragraph on p23: 

"Their true sex remains, for legal and biological considerations, what it was at birth. It was this factor which led the British government, in 1970, to stipulate that a person's birth certificate can never be changed, unless a genuine mistake was made at birth. Roberta Cowell's birth certificate has been so altered, because doctors were convinced that a mistake was made. But usually a transsexual must live with the fact that his or her birth certificate can never be changed."

So no mention here of Corbett v. Corbett (but see Chp 4 below). Cowell, despite not having been subjected to such a mistake, was able to have her birth certificate amended in 1952 -- before vaginoplasty -- because:

a) This was 18 years before Corbett v Corbett changed the law

b) She was able to afford a Harley Street doctor

c) She had lots of class privilege. Her father was one of Britain's foremost doctors, and she was able to use personal contacts.

April Ashley, on the other hand, who should have applied for her birth certificate to be revised when she returned to England in 1960, didn't have the legal and medical advice, and didn't know that it could be revised.

I have previously commented

"On p74 of April Ashley's Odyssey, we find: "Both these cases [Forbes and Cowell] were the result of ambiguous genital formation at birth, resulting in incorrect sex identification. They are not to be confused with cases like my own, those of transsexualism, which so far as doctors have determined are primarily of psychological origin (abetted to a greater or lesser extent by physiological factors according to each individual case) and therefore, as the law stands, do not entitle one to a change of birth certificate."

I don't know whether it was April or her ghost-writer, Duncan Fallowell, who wrote this. I suspect Fallowell as the section does not appear in April's second autobiography, The First Lady. In either case the paragraph is quite problematical. Nothing in the available material on either Evan Forbes or Betty Cowell suggests that they had ambiguous genitals. All three, Forbes, Cowell and Ashley appear to be transsexual and not intersex.

Nor have I read that changes of birth certificates were restricted, before 1970, to intersex excluding transsexuals. What Forbes and Cowell, and Michael Dillon and Georgina Turtle Somerset did have that April did not was considerable class privilege. While we know of other British transsexuals before 1970 who were of working class origins, I have not found a clear statement that any one of them had their birth certificate amended.

Hodgkinson, in claiming that Parliament, as opposed to the legal system, stipulated on the issue, was probably thinking of the Nullity Of Marriage Act, 1971, the draft version of which did not mention the sex of the parties, but such a clause was added during the report stage, after the publicity re Corbett v. Corbett. This was the first time in British law that marriage was actually defined as being between a man and a woman.

Chp 2: Why Should Anyone want to Change Sex?

Hodgkinson talks of the difficulties, the pain of the operations and of electrolysis and of the financial costs (about £3000-£4000 for vaginoplasty in the late 1980s) and then “Yet, if you asked any transsexual whether the ordeal had been worth it, you would get an unqualified yes”. Well, yes. Is that not part of really being a transsexual?

She refutes the notion that trans people become traditional stereotypes of their acquired gender, or that it is a kinky trip. She discusses H-Y Antigen which at that time was being touted as the biological identifier of trans persons, but realises that the research is too recent - and of course it was a line of research that did not lead anywhere.

She finishes the chapter by bringing in Janice Raymond’s opinion of Jan Morris - that Morris having already lived his best years as a man and facing inevitable decline, gained a new lease of life be becoming a woman in middle age. Almost every book on transsexualism in the 1980s quotes Raymond one way or another. In fact if considered as a career move, transition did work very well for Morris, but that is hardly true for the vast majority of late transitioners. And try proposing such a career move to a regular cis-heterosexual …

Chp 3: Surgical and Hormonal Procedures

This chapter contains a lot of detail about the nitty-gritty of a sex-change that is only too well known to readers of this encyclopedia. The autobiographical accounts by Jan Morris and April Ashley of their experience of Dr Burou’s clinic in Casablanca are quoted in some detail - enough to put off anyone who is not truly transsexual. Almost all the chapter is about Gender Identity Clinics, and Russell Reid’s practice that helped so many to get around the road blocks (including me) is not mentioned at all. Hodgkinson made up for this omission with an article for The Independent in 1992 which was mainly about Dr Reid and his patients.

Chp 4: Transsexuals and the law

There have, of course, been significant legal changes since 1987, and to that extent this chapter is inevitably out of date. However we need to be reminded of how things used to be.

Hodgkinson does here mention Corbett v. Corbett which she had ignored in Chp 1. She says that transsexuals cannot marry or remarry in their new sex - meaning heterosexually, but does not mention that trans women could and did marry cis women, trans men did marry cis men and trans women did marry trans men - they were pioneering queer marriage long before gays and lesbians were able to. Also some UK trans persons did marry outside the UK - as I did.

She naively asserts: "no doubt the birth certificate ruling is intended to stop people passing themselves off as somebody else - a fear that is virtually groundless". She certainly does not see Corbett v Corbett as a show trial to assert aristocratic privilege, as more recent writers have done.

Chp 5: How Transsexuality Affects Others

This chapter is about parents, spouses and children.

Hodgkinson says that she did not locate any “female-to-male transsexual who was married in the original sex”. I mentioned above that she had missed Robert Allen’s 1954 autobiography, and Allen did have a brief marriage to a man.

“Nor have I located any female-to-male transsexual who became a mother before the change-over.” The 1980s were before pregnant trans men became common in the media.


There are eight pages of photographs. Two photos of Christine Jorgensen, and one each of April Ashley and Renée Richards even though none of these are featured in the following biographical chapters. Before and after photos of Rachael Webb, Judy Cousins and Melanie Martin. Two pages, nine photos of Michael Dillon. Four photos of Mark Rees.

Chp 6: Male-to-female Transsexuals

Despite the book’s dedication to Judy Cousins (GVWW) and four photographs of her, she is surprisingly missing from this chapter except for a single paragraph on p105 about how when still male, Cousins considered female golfers to be an irritation - an attitude she came to regret after transition. However Hodgkinson also published a profile on Cousins in The Sunday People around the same time that the book came out.

Nor is Roberta Betty Cowell (GVWW) found here despite Hodgkinson's personal acquaintance. Cowell had mainly been discussed in Chp 1 re birth certificates.

April Ashley and Jan Morris had been discussed several times in previous chapters, and are not in this chapter.

There are multi-page sections on:

Rachael Webb (GVWW) the lorry driver turned borough councillor;

singer Adele Anderson (GVWW);

Dora, a computer consultant;

Alison, a publican who is accepted by and has stayed with her wife and children;

Melanie Jane, an artist, previously into heavy metal and a biker;

Stephanie Anne Booth (GVWW) who ran the Transformation shops for trans women;

Anna Heming (GVWW), an ex-sailor who had completion surgery in 1959.

Chp 7: Female-to-male Transsexuals

The chapter opens with passing mentions of Joan of Arc and James Barry (GVWW). "But were people like Joan of Arc true female-to-male transsexuals?". She says nothing of “female-husbands”, nor the many born-female persons who fought in various armies and were completely taken as men.

Hodgkinson spends several pages on "Probably the first-to-male transsexual of modern times ... the novelist Radclyffe Hall". Hodgkinson seems unaware of other trans men of the late 1920s-early 1930 who were much better candidates, such as Joe Carstairs, Violet Morris, Madeleine Pelletier, Victor Barker, Gluck, Wynsley Michael Swann, Toupie Lowther. It is true that the information on most of these men was not available in the mid-1980s when Hodgkinson was writing. However Hall was never a good candidate to be considered as trans. In my article The Triple-Whammy 1928-9, I quoted Laura Doan on Radclyffe Hall:

"Her haircut was thought to be the most feminine of all the short cuts popular at the time, and she had her hair done at Harrods --- not a barbershop. Even Hall's famous sartorial choices were on the feminine side of what was known as the 'severely masculine mode'... Nor did Hall and her partner Una Troubridge dress in a bizarre manner, wearing, as some biographers have claimed, clothing from a costume shop. The couple studied fashion magazines and built their wardrobes not from men's tailors in Savile Row, but from the most chic of London's department stores for women [unlike Gluck who bought suits from the expensive men's tailors]. Hall always wore a skirt and conducted herself in a completely womanly way - in short, Hall definitely didn't model the protagonist [of The Well of Loneliness], Stephen Gordon, after herself."

Hodgkinson then discusses Michael Dillon , ship’s doctor, "the first female-to-male transsexual to have modern surgery and hormone treatment". And, of course, she wrote a full-length biography of him a few years later.

She follows this with accounts of

Mark Rees who took his case to the European Court of Human Rights;

Karl who transitioned to male in his 50s, and stayed in the same job;

Stephen from Manchester (presumably Stephen Whittle before he became a lawyer);

Richard who changed on the job at a computer company and was processed at the GIC at Guys Hospital;

Tim, a writer living with a common-law wife, was one of the few trans men at that time to have had phalloplasty.

Chp 8: Transsexuals, Homosexuals and Transvestites

As was usual in the 1980s Hodgkinson juxtaposes Transsexuals, Homosexuals and Transvestites. Hodgkinson makes a bad start by jumping from female impersonators such as the 'grotesque' Danny La Rue and Dame Edna Everage to performers who did transition such as April Ashley and Coccinelle at Le Carrousel and straight back to television drag performers such as Benny Hill and Hinge and Brackett. However she quickly separates them by sexual orientation, Ashley and Coccinelle being Transsexuals who married husbands, and Everage/Barry Humphries being the one who is definitely heterosexual. Writing in the 1980s, she is unaware that Danny La Rue will eventually come out as gay. "So it is not surprising that the public mixes the three groups up. Also, most psychology textbooks dealing with sexual deviation tend to lump the three conditions together , or at least try to show that they have a common cause, either biological or environmental. (p155)"

Hodgkinson' major source for this chapter is not the trans persons she interviewed in the previous two chapters but Robert Stoller's The Transsexual Experiment, 1975. This leads her to claim

a) most transvestite men would never want to be women

b) true transsexuals never become sexually aroused by wearing women's clothes

c) all transvestites are male

d) women never dress in men's clothing for purposes of sexual arousal (p157).

From our perspective over three decades later we can see this as cisplaining. Exceptions to all four claims are well documented.

She follows this with an account of a John Colvin who dabbled with transvesting and wrote it up in The Guardian in January 1986. She says that he "cannot be considered a 'true' transvestite ... as he does not appear to gain sexual satisfaction by wearing dresses" (p161). More cisplaining.

Her example of a 'true transvestite' is Gerald/Geraldine the lodger/lover of Monica Jay. Monica wrote up their affair as Geraldine - For the Love of a Transvestite, 1986. This was later filmed as Just Like a Woman, 1992.

Chp 9: Transsexualism and the Battle of the Sexes

“However much pre-operative transsexuals may feel that they are living out a lie in their original sex, the fact remains that when they eventually change over they find that life is very different on the 'other side' - so much so that they often feel they have entered an alien country for which little in their previous experience has prepared them. They frequently find that the 'real' men and women whose world they enter post-operatively are very different creatures from what they had imagined.” …

“Though transsexuals are somehow managing to cross the sex border, and are doing it in ever-increasing numbers, it does not seem that they are enabling the sexes to come together or to become more alike in any way. On the face of it, it appears that transsexuals are a special ultra-minority whose experience bears little relationship to that of ordinary people. But if they can change over, and become very effective 'constructed' men and women, whose secret few can guess, why is there still such a wide gap?”

As you may guess from the word ‘constructed’, Hodgkinson unfortunately turns to Janice Raymond who - of course - explains this by accusing trans persons of exaggerating and perpetuating gender stereotypes, this despite Hodgkinson’s refutation of that idea in chapter 2.

Hodgkinson then completes the chapter with standard 1980s comments re the gender differences, with a few observations from trans persons. Then she quotes, for two pages, a newspaper article by the novelist and journalist Celia Brayfield who passed herself as a man for a day to see what the differences are.

Hodgkinson’s Bibliography

05 June 2022

A Rereading of Liz Hodgkinson’s Bodyshock: The Truth About Changing Sex, 1987. Part I- Life

Part I: life

Part II: book

Liz Garret (1945 - ) was raised in Cambridgeshire (where she befriended Amaryllis Garnett, great niece of Virginia Woolf), and read English at Durham University. After a very short stint teaching, she became a freelance reporter/columnist, at first in North-East England, and married fellow journalist Neville Hodgkinson. They had two sons. The family moved to Richmond, London, and both obtained work with the national and London papers then located in Fleet Street. Liz found work at the Sunday People, the Sun, the Daily Mail, and the Times.

Shortly after moving to London, Liz had an encounter with pioneer trans woman Roberta Betty Cowell:

"When I moved to Richmond in 1970, I was told about this strange person who looked like Marilyn Monroe from the neck up and a garage mechanic from the neck down.

Some time later, I was with my son Tom, then aged two or three, in the local Post Office, when I saw somebody who just had to be her. Heart beating wildly, I had just plucked up the courage to say I was a journalist and could I have an interview, when up piped young Tom: ‘Mummy, is that a man or a lady?’

Unfazed, and possibly used to this, Betty invited me for a glass of wine in her dilapidated room just round the corner, decorated with number plates, flying helmets, steering wheels and old car batteries; hardly my lady's boudoir. But she had a bottle of Hirondelle wine waiting, and also a packet of Black Russian cigarettes. This was 1971, after all."(Telegraph, 24 Oct 2015)

Betty took a shine to Liz, and made many of her documents available. They started writing a book together about Cowell's life, but in the end Betty did not approve it for publication.

Neville was the medical correspondent at the Daily Mail, 1977-80 where he “gravitated towards doctors who were the pioneers of more holistic approaches to medical care: those teaching reflective practices and trying to understand the role of our aspirations, feelings, frustrations and thoughts in making us ill or keeping us well”. In late September 1980 he had a religious experience which led to his resigning from the Daily Mail. At the same time, Liz wrote her first transsexual story - on Julia Grant and on Judy Cousins, which was published in The Sun in October 1980. Julia had just been featured in the BBC documentary. Judy had just founded SHAFT and it was to SHAFT that Liz later came to find more trans persons.

Neville was writing a book on mind-body links which was published in 1984. In 1981 he had been introduced to the Brahma Kumaris religious movement, and with time became more involved with them. The Hodgkinsons decided to sleep apart and to be celibate. Liz published a controversial book in 1986 on celibacy as a solution to personal problems. They eventually divorced, although they remained lifelong friends. Liz published a book arguing for the abolition of marriage, and Neville became controversial in the early 1990s as he wrote in the Sunday Times articles critical of the mainstream theory that HIV leads to AIDS.

Liz on the back cover
In 1987 Liz came out with Bodyshock, one of the best journalism books on transsexuality for many years afterwards. Betty had told Liz about Michael Dillon, and in researching that book she was introduced to Andrew Hewson, the literary agent who had taken over John Johnson Ltd, and who was holding Dillon's unpublished autobiography and others of his documents. In addition to including Dillon in Bodyshock, she wrote a full-length biography of him, based on the autobiography. Her collection and the autobiography of course are a major source of Pagan Kennedy's more recent biography of Michael Dillon, which gives her only the most cursory credit. Her Dillon biography is the partial basis of a play by Phil Kingston, Dr Dillon and Georgia, that was presented in Dublin in 2006, and the film rights to the biography have been sold although the film has not been made.

There are three books on English trans persons at this time. Liz used her contact with Judy Cousins and SHAFT and interviewed several of its members. At roughly the same time, Kris Kirk had made contact with the London TV/TS Group led by Yvonne Sinclair, and was the first to publish with Men in Frocks, 1984 (review); Richard Ekins had made contact mainly with the Beaumont Society led by Alice Purnell and eventually published Male Femaling, 1996 (review). The three books combined form the basis of UK English trans history in the 1980s, although it is remarkable how they document different persons without overlap. Although Ekins was the SHAFT librarian, and received from them the foundation deposit that became the Trans-Gender Archive, he has barely more than passing one-line comments about its members.

Kirk's book is not in Hodgkinson's bibliography. Hodgkinson's book is not in Ekin's bibliography. Ekins does list Kirk's book, but mentions it only once with reference to drag balls and does not otherwise use the wealth of its content. All three books are either ignored or dismissed backhandedly in Christine Burns' Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows, 2018 (review).

Liz has written over 54 books. She previously specialized in books about health. Her 1995 book on snoring was controversial in that it closely resembled a very similar book by Derek Lipman.

In recent years she has concentrated on books about property, and has become a successful property investor and landlord.

Strangely her website does not even mention Bodyshock.

  • Liz Hodgkinson. “Why are Julia and Judy different from other women”. The Sun, 14 October 1980. Online.

  • Neville Hodgkinson. Will to Be Well: The Real Alternative Medicine. Hutchinson, 1984.

  • Liz Hodgkinson. Sex is Not Compulsory. Columbus Books 1986

  • Maureen Messent. “So can there be life after sex?” Reading Evening Post, 27 September 1986.

  • Mary Kenny. “They’ve looked at life from both sides now”. Irish Independent, September 26, 1987.

  • Liz Hodgkinson. "Father, Dear Father: Ex-officer and gentleman Judy Cousins and her daughter Penny Croucher talk to Liz Hodgkinson". The People, ?, 1987. Online.

  • Liz Hodgkinson. Bodyshock: the truth about changing sex. Columbus, 1987.

  • Liz Hodgkinson. Unholy Matrimony: the case for abolishing marriage. Columbus, 1988.

  • Rupert Raj. "Book Review: Bodyshock" Cross-Port Inner View, July 1989. Online.  Also at Twenty Minutes, July 1989. Online.

  • Liz Hodgkinson. Michael, Née Laura: The Story of the World's First Female-to-Male Transsexual. Columbus, 1989.  

  • Liz Hodgkinson. "Health: Goodbye Samantha, Hello Sam: What Motivates Increasing Numbers of Cross-Dressers To Escape Their Sex? Liz Hodgkinson Investigates". The Independent, 14 September 1992. Online.

  • Review of Bodyshock. The Tartan Skirt, 6, April 1993. Online.

  • Neville Hodgkinson. AIDS: The Failure of Contemporary Science; how a virus that never was deceived the world. Fourth Estate, 1996.

  • Liz Hodgkinson. Peace and Purity: The Story of the Brahma Kumaris: a Spiritual Revolution. Rider, 1999.

  • “Neville Hodgkinson In Conversation with James Powell”. Oxford Muse, March 2005. Online.

  • Pagan Kennedy. The First Man-Made Man: The Story of Two Sex Changes, One Love Affair, and a Twentieth-Century Medical Revolution. Bloomsbury Press, 2007.

  • Liz Hodgkinson. “Poisoned legacy of the Bloomsbury Set: How one woman is haunted by the tragic lives of her friends - the four dazzling sisters descended from those bohemian artists notorious for their sex lives”. The Daily Mail, 22 May 2012. Online. Tells of Amaryllis Garnett and Liz being at school together.

  • Liz Hodgkinson. "The true story behind Britain's first transsexual woman". The Daily Telegraph, 24 Oct 2015. Online.

  • Liz Hodgkinson. From a Girl to a Man: How Laura Became Michael. Quartet Books, 2015. A second edition of *Michael, Née Laura: 1989.

  • Maggie Hartford. "Liz Hodgkinson explores the history of transgender people in new book". Oxford Mail, 9th February 2016. Online

  • Christine Burns (ed) Trans Britain: Our Journey from the Shadows. Unbound, 2018.



Daily Mail Columns

See also my Annotated reading list for English trans history.