This site is the most comprehensive on the web devoted to trans history and biography. Well over 1700 persons worthy of note, both famous and obscure, are discussed in detail, and many more are mentioned in passing.

There is a detailed Index arranged by vocation, doctor, activist group etc. There is also a Place Index arranged by City etc. This is still evolving.

In addition to this most articles have one or more labels at the bottom. Click one to go to similar persons. There is a full list of labels at the bottom of the right-hand sidebar. There is also a search box at the top left. Enjoy exploring!

29 October 2010

A Blanchard-Binary Timeline – Part 2: 2001-10

Continued from Part 1

++= something added later 



Anne Lawrence gets PhD from the Institute for the Advanced Study of Human Sexuality at San Francisco.

Kenneth Zucker takes over Archives of Sexual Behavior.
Anne Lawrence contributes to the 6th version of HBIGDA SOC.
  • Richard Ekins & Dave King. “Transgendering, Migrating and Love of Oneself as a Woman: A Contribution to a Sociology of Autogynephilia”. IJT 5,3,
    Points out that autogynephilia in MTFs very similar to that in cis women. Use concept with ‘femaling’ modes. “In our judgement, our framework provides the conceptual wherewithal to unpack such issues in a way denied to the taxonomic, typological and diagnostic approach followed by Blanchard.”


The CAMH GIC was awarded a Presidential Citation from Div 44 of the American Psychological Association.  Ray Blanchard accepted the award on behalf of CAMH
  • Viviane K. Namaste. Invisible Lives: The Erasure of Transsexual and Transgendered People. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000. Again, neither Blanchard nor autogynephilia mentioned in discussion of CAMH GIC. Reviewed here.


  • J. Michael Bailey. The Man Who Would Be Queen: the science of gender-bending and transsexualism. Washington: Joseph Henry; Oxford: Oxford Publicity Partnership. 256 pp 2003.  The Joseph Henry imprint is part of the National Academies Press. 
Ray Blanchard writes his one and only Amazon review in favour of Bailey’s book.  "Prof. Bailey's book, which is written for a general audience in a clear and accessible style, has the potential to bring the same reassurance to a much larger group of people."

The National Academies Press page quotes Anne Lawrence describing  Bailey’s book as "a wonderful book on an important subject", and Simon Levey that it is "Absolutely splendid".

Ray Blanchard and Anne Lawrence gave papers at the Third International Body Integrity Disorder Meeting in 2003 comparing BIID (apotemnophilia=desire to have a limb removed) to Gender identity disorder.  See overview by Andrea James.

HBIGDA criticizes the Bailey book.

Ray Blanchard resigns from HBIGDA, calling its criticism ‘appalling’.

Maxine Petersen resigns from HBIGDA in support.

Maxine Petersen testifies at Ontario Human Rights Tribunal re restoring funding for SRS.

Andrea James and Lynn Conway set up web pages to alert trans women about Bailey’s book.

Anjelica Kieltyka complains about how she was represented in Bailey’s book.

Willow Arune and others start Autogynephilia Yahoo group.


    Joan Roughgarden writes open letter to the National Academy.  "I wonder if many psychologists fully grasp the image some of their colleagues are projecting---psychology as a discipline without standards, nourishing a clique of dumbly insensitive bigots. These psychologists don’t seek to help people, but to dominate them by controlling the definition of normalcy. Their bogus categories and made-up diseases are intended to subordinate, not to describe."

    Lambda Literary Foundation nominated Bailey’s book as a finalist in the transgender category.

    Christine Burns initiates an online petition which gathers thousand of signatures in just a few days., and the nomination was withdrawn

    Jim Marks, Executive Director of LLF resigns.

    J Michael Bailey steps down as Chair of Psychology program at Northwestern.

    Kiira Triea sets up with Jennifer Ross for HSTS women. Bailey and Lawrence immediately link to the site.


    ++ Autogynephila Yahoo group closed for multiple violations of Terms of Service.  Rumour is that this was engineered by Jennifer Usher.

    Lisanne Anderson sets up The Autogynephilia Resource.
    "In my eye, we MTFs come in two varieties: started-out-straight and started-out-gay. Started-out-straight MTFs include crossdressers and most later-transitioning transsexuals, and our hallmarks are 1) We enjoy being women (and are deeply satisfied by anything that tells us that that’s what we’re doing). 2) We aren’t spontaneously and uncontrollably effeminate. 3) We’re attracted to women (whether we develop a fondness for men later on or not). 4) We gravitate toward business or technical careers. Started-out-gay MTFs include drag queens and most early-transitioning (say before 30) transsexuals. Their hallmarks are 1) They act like women and were effeminate from the start. 2) They don’t automatically love being women. If they’re well-received en femme, they seek it out. If not, they may be content to live more as drag queens or conventional gay men. 3) Most I’ve met will laugh off the idea of ever being attracted to a woman. 4) They gravitate toward people-oriented or creative careers."

    • Ray Blanchard quoted: “A man without a penis has certain disadvantages in this world, and this is in reality what you're creating”. Jane Armstrong. “The Body within, the body without”. The Globe and Mail, 12 June 2004, p. F1. Online at:



      Jennifer Usher and Diane Kearny, of the US Protestant HBS group, frequently use ‘autogynephile’ to mean non-HBS although they do not equate HBS and HSTS, and both HBS and HSTS are adamant that they are not the other.  "I do believe many today come from the behavioral mode of fetishism and through peer influence and/or as an extension of their own fetishism grow into what might well describe the autogynephilic not unlike the multitudes of the Lawrence's and Arune's in this world whom I suspect outnumber the true transsexual/HBS by an overwhelming number (Kearny-10/05/2009)".

      Liberal government of Ontario reinstates partial funding of SRS under OHIP.

      Kay Brown removes her Transsexual, Transgender, and Intersex History.



      Ray Blanchard Chair of the paraphilia sub-working group for the new DSM-V.

      Transkids site revived by Kay Brown writing as Cloudy. She also started a blog: On the Science of Changing Sex.  "I slept through the controversy surrounding the publication of The Man Who Would Be Queen. ... Prof. Bailey graciously gave me access to an online version of the book and I read it from front to back in nearly one sitting. Although I disagreed with several minor points, I felt I could have written the book myself. I agreed with each and every major point. Who wouldn't, if they knew what I know."

      • Andrea James. “What motivates Ray Blanchard’s oppression of sex and gender minorities?”. Transsexual Road Map. 2 November 2009.
      • Larry Nuttbrock, Walter Bockting, Mona Mason, Sel Hwahng, Andrew Rosenblum, Monica Macri & Jeffrey Becker. “A Further Assessment of Blanchard’s Typology of Homosexual Versus Non-Homosexual or Autogynephilic Gender Dysphoria”. Archives of Sexual Behavior. April 2009. A Study of 571 trans women.
      • Charles Moser. “Autogynephilia in Women”. Journal of Homosexuality. The first study of autogynephilia in cis women found that 28% are frequently so.
      • Zagria “What is Autogynephilia?”. A Gender Variance Who’s Who. 22 March 2009.  "Blanchard’s supporters applaud that he has increased the types of transsexual from one to two. His detractors are appalled that the wide variety of transsexuality has been reduced to two stereotypes".
      • Jack Molay’s Confessions of an Autogynephiliac.


      Jack Molay renames his blog to Cross-dreamers.

      Andrea James reveals that Cloudy is Kay Brown, author of Transsexual, Transgender, and Intersex History, and high tech entrepreneur.
      • Anne Lawrence. “A Validation of Blanchard’s Typology: Comment on Nuttbrock et al . Archives of Sexual Behavior. March 2010.
      • Larry Nuttbrock. “The Limitations of Blanchard’s Typology: A Response to Lawrence. Archives of Sexual Behavior. June 2010.
      • Jesse Bering. “The Third Gender”. Scientific American. May 2010.
      • Ophelia Bradley. ’They Need Labels’: Contemporary Institutional And Popular Frameworks For Gender Variance. MA Thesis. Georgia State University. Discusses AGP, HSTS and HBS persons using their blog names rather than their person names.
      • Rose White’s book Harry Benjamin Syndrome Review constantly miswrites autogynephile as ‘autogyne’, and uses it as an insult while at the same time insisting that an HBS woman is obsessed with clothes and makeup.
      • Alice Novic.  "Autogynephilia: An Illuminating, Gut-Wrenching Conversation with Ray Blanchard, Ph.D.".   Crossdreamers.  Oct 22, 2010.  "Am I angry with Ray Blanchard? A little bit, for being such an old stick in the mud, because I think he could change his term for us without compromising his principles. He is no transgender activist, not even one bit. He has not given us useful slogans stamped with seal of science that we can take to our wives and our congressmen. But he is a scientist who has devoted a large chunk of his career to the rigorous study of us, a rather small, not terribly well funded group of people. And for that I am thankful, very thankful."
      • Julia M. Serano. ‘The Case Against Autogynephilia.’ International Journal of Transgenderism, 12:3, 176-187.  "If proponents of autogynephilia insist that every exception to the model is due to misreporting, then autogynephilia theory must be rejected on the grounds that it is unfalsifiable and therefore unscientific. If, on the other hand, we accept that these exceptions are legitimate, then it is clear that autogynephilia theory’s two-subtype taxonomy does not hold true." 

      27 October 2010

      Marjorie Garber (1944–) literary theorist.

      Marjorie Garber did a BA at Swarthmore College, 1966, and a PhD at Yale University, 1969. She is a noted Shakespearean scholar, with wider interests in cultural studies, and is currently Professor of Visual and Environmental Studies and of English and American Literature and Language at Harvard University. 

      In her 1993 book, Vested Interests, Garber explores the way that 'transvestism creates culture, and ... culture creates transvestites'. She points out that most commentators on the topic of transvestism look through rather than at the cross-dresser, seeing only a male or female manqué rather than a transvestite as such. Not that Garber herself perceives a third sex as a term or a 'sex':
      'the "third" is a mode of articulation, a way of describing a space of possibility'. It challenges the 'binarity' of 'female' and 'male'.
      In cultural terms, cross-dressing acts as an index of 'category crises'. Such category crises - failures of definitional distinctions, permeable borderlines between societies' categories: black/white; Jew/Christian; noble/bourgeois; master/servant - 'are the ground of culture itself', and the anxieties they provoke will 'always' displace onto a transvestite figure or mode.

      The 'apparently spontaneous or unexpected or supplementary presence' of a transvestite, where the primary theme does not seem to be concerned with gender difference or blurred gender, indicates a category crisis elsewhere that has been displaced onto a figure that is already symbolic of the margin. Thus Garber goes on to explore the frequent appearance of transvestites in the interaction of Euro-American culture with Jew, blacks, Moslem countries etc.

      Other Books: Shakespeare's Ghost Writers: Literature As Uncanny Causality, 1987. Dog Love, 1996. Symptoms of Culture, 1999. Shakespeare After All, 2004.

      Garber’s book, while she does here and there discuss real-life trans persons, is about the place of cross-dressing, or perhaps androgyny, in culture.  This place can often be quite at odds with the place of real trans persons in society.  The classic example is the ancient Greeks who had androgynous gods at the same time as they killed any intersex children.

      Nobody really seems to have done any thing with Garber’s gigantic book, except to be in awe of her erudition.  Her major insight is that category crises result in fictional trans persons of one kind or another, being created and appreciated.  One the other hand, there are people who cannot tell fiction from real life, and being situated in a real-life cultural crisis, be it capitalism, colonialism, racial conflict, war or whatever, encounter a real-life trans person, and lash out, often killing the person, rather than dealing with the real-life oppression.

      20 October 2010

      A Blanchard-Binary Timeline – Part 1: to 2000

      See also my essay: What is Autogynephilia?

      This is intended as a broad overview.  For Lynn Conway's timeline that concentrates on the events of 2003-7  see Here.

      ++ = added later


      • Magnus Hirschfeld. Die Transvestiten; ein Untersuchung uber den erotischen Verkleidungstrieb: mit umfangreichem casuistischen und historischen Material. Berlin: Pulvermacher, 562, vi pp1910. Hirschfeld takes the existing word ‘transvestite’, redefines it as an erotic activity and divides the transvestites by sexual orientation. Available in German only until 1991.


      Arnold Lowman born.


      Kurt Freund born.


      Betty Steiner born.


      Edward Westall born.


      • Otto Fenichel .”The psychology of transvestism”. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 11, 211–227. 


        Paul McHugh born.


        • Magnus Hirschfeld revised by Arthur Koestler and Norman Haire. Sexual Anomalies And Perversions: Physical And Psychological Development And Treatment - A Summary Of The Works Of The Late Dr Magnus Hirschfeld. Francis Aldor Publisher, 1936. Emerson Books,1948. Until the 1991 translation of Die Transvestiten, this is the Hirschfeld book used by most English sexologists.


        Arnold Lowman’s first marriage.


        Ray Blanchard born.

        William Orobko born.

        Edward Westall marries a Canadian, moves to Hamilton, Ontario, becomes a school teacher.


        Arnold Lowman’s second marriage.
        • B. Karpman. “Dream life in a case of transvestism with particular attention to the problem of latent homosexuality”. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 106, 292–337. 


          Anne Lawrence born.


          Anjelica Kieltyka born.

          Denise Magner born.


          Lisanne Anderson born.

          ? Lem Clemmensen born


          Kay Brown born.

          J Michael Bailey born.


          Arnold Lowman, as Virginia Prince, started Transvestia magazine.


          Arnold Lowman convicted of sending obscene material through the mail.


          Virginia Prince met twice a month with psychiatrist Robert Stoller. This would continue for 29 years.


          Richard Novic born.


          Failed Czechoslovak rising. Kurt Freund leaves for Canada.

          Virginia Prince appeared on television.
          • Robert Stoller. Sex and Gender. London: Hogarth. ‘Homosexual early transitioner’ came to be the more accepted usage for Primary.  


            Clarke Institute of Psychiatry Gender Indentity Clinic founded on a part-time basis, Betty Steiner director.

            Jennifer Ross born.
            • H. Taylor Buckner. “The Transvestic Career Path”. Read at the American Sociological Association annual meeting. San Francisco, September, 1969. Psychiatry. Vol.: 33, No. 3. August,1970: 381-389. Online at:


              Archives of Sexual Behavior founded by Richard Green.
              • Virginia Prince. How To Be A Woman Though Maleclip_image001. Sandy Thomas Publications 193 pp. 


                Georges Zavitzianos proposes the term 'homeovestite'.  Despite its similarity to autogynephilia in women, Blanchard will never address the term.


                  Ray Blanchard completes his PhD, and moves to Canada.

                  Edward Westall separates from his wife.
                  • Thomas Kando. Sex Change; The Achievement of Gender Identity Among Feminized Transsexuals. Springfield, Ill: Thomas. By limiting his sample to recently transitioned transsexuals, Kando creates a picture that will later be compared to autogynephilia. 


                    Denise Magner has surgery at Johns Hopkins GIC.

                    • Jan MorrisConundrum. London: Faber. The best-selling autobiography written in her immediately post-op euphoria phase contributes to the false image that Kando initiated.
                    • Ethel Person and Lionel Ovesey. “The transsexual syndrome in males. I. Primary transsexualism”. American. Journal of Psychotherapy 28; 174-193.
                    • Ethel Person and Lionel Ovesey. “The transsexual syndrome in males. II. Secondary transsexualism”. American. Journal of Psychotherapy 28; 4-20. They designated a Primary Transsexual as one who is functionally asexual and who progresses resolutely toward a surgical resolution without significant deviation toward either homosexuality or heterosexuality. They define a Secondary Transsexual as one who is a homosexual and effeminate from early childhood into adulthood. Within the Secondary classification they identified two sub-classes: Homosexual transsexualism and Transvestitic transsexualism. 


                      Paul McHugh appointed head psychiatrist at Johns Hopkins University.

                      The Clarke Institute Gender Identity Clinic becomes full-time with the blessing of the Ontario Ministry of Health


                      Ray Blanchard becomes a clinical psychologist at the Ontario Correctional Institute in Brampton, where he meets Kurt Freund.


                      Edward Westall becomes Susan Huxford, and is accepted by the Clarke GIC.


                      Paul McHugh closes the Johns Hopkins GIC.
                      • Janice RaymondThe Transsexual Empire. Boston: Beacon Press: Chp III draws on Kando and Morris to describe all transsexuals as if they are similar to autogynephiles. Blanchard never refers to this book in print. 


                        Ray Blanchard starts at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry.

                        Susan Huxford has SRS courtesy of the Clarke GIC.

                        Kay Brown has SRS courtesy of Dr Biber.


                        Susan Huxford becomes director of FACT.
                        • Kurt Freund, Betty W. Steiner, & S. Chan, “Two types of cross-gender identity”. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 49–63. 


                          Zagria applies to and is rejected by the Clarke GIC
                          • Betty W. Steiner (ed) . Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management. clip_image001[2]New York & London: Plenum Press. The full model HSTS-Autogynephilia is explained.


                            FACT re-organizes as Transition Toronto in rebellion against Susan Huxford.
                            • Frederick L. Whitam and Robin M. Mathy. Male Homosexuality in Four Societies: Brazil, Guatemala, the Philippines, and the United States. New York: Praeger.   Like Freund & Blanchard, Whitam divides trans persons into two types based on sexual orientation and stereotypes them in a similar way.  Neither Blanchard nor his acolytes ever mention this book.


                              Anne Lawrence marries.

                              J Michael Bailey becomes professor of Psychology at Northwestern University.
                              • Ray Blanchard. “The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria”. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 616-623. 


                                • Ray Blanchard & Betty W. Steiner (eds.). Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.  Includes a paper on "Gender Identity Disorders in Adult Women" by Blanchard where he does recognize some heterosexual women (i.e. gay trans men), but only the four cases published in psychiatric journals.  Lou Sullivan is still being ignored.


                                  Lem Clemmensen, Clarke GIC Coordinator, transitions to become Maxine Petersen.
                                  • Emily S.Apter. Feminizing the Fetish: Psychoanalysis and Narrative Obsession in Turn-of-the-Century France. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991. The first major book refuting the nonsense idea that woman cannot be fetishistic.
                                  • Magnus Hirschfeld translated into English by Michael A Lombardi-Nash. Tranvestites: The Erotic urge to Crossdress. Buffalo: Prometheus Books. 424 pp. 81 years later, this essential book is finally available in English. 


                                    Anjelica Keiltyka transitions.


                                    • Louise J. Kaplan Female Perversions: The Temptations of Emma Bovary. New York: Doubleday, 1991. London: Penguin 1993. While written according to the conventions of psychoanalysis, a clear demonstration that women can be fetishistic. 


                                      Ray Blanchard on the gender dysphoria sub-working group for the DSM-IV, 1994.

                                      Denise Magner active as Kiira Triea in Hermaphrodites with Attitude, a publication of the Intersex Society of North America.

                                      Betty Steiner and her husband die from fumes from car running in their garage.


                                      Kurt Freund retires. Ray Blanchard becomes Head of Clinical Sexology Services at the Clarke Institute.

                                      Viviane Namaste funded by Health Canada to do needs assessment for trans persons in Toronto. Of her sample of 33, 19 were enrolled at the Clarke GIC. No mention of either Blanchard or Autogynephila.

                                      Progressive Conservative Party under Mike Harris become the government of Ontario, with an item in their manifesto that they would discontinue funding under the provincial health plan for SRS.

                                      Anne Lawrence transitions at work, separates from wife, observes Dr Meltzer do a SRS.

                                      William Orobko arrested in Thailand.
                                      • Vivianne Namaste.  Access Denied:  A Report on the Experiences of Transsexuals and Transgenderists with Health Care and Social Services in Ontario.   Commissioned by CLGRO: Project Affirmation, July, 1995.
                                      • J. N., Zhou, M. A. Hofman, L. J Gooren, & D. F Swaab. “A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality”. Nature, 378, 68-70. 6 deceased trans women had a small ‘female sized’ BSTc in their brain. Three were gynephilic, 1 bi, 2 androphilic, all started hormones 35 or later. Online at:
                                      • Lorraine Ganman & Merja Makinen. Female Fetishismclip_image001[6]. London: Lawrence & Wishart 1994. New York: New York University Press 1995. 


                                        Kurt Freund, suffering from lung cancer, takes his own life.

                                        Anne Lawrence has SRS with Dr Meltzer.

                                        ++ Kay Brown meets Anne Lawrence, but feels that the distinction of the two types is largely unimportant to the needs of the community.


                                        Anne Lawrence resigns after unauthorized vaginal inspection of unconscious patient.

                                        ++ Anne Lawrence, Ray Blanchard,  Kiira Triea, Bo Laurent, Heike Boedecker, Anne Fausto-Sterling, Milton Diamond, Suzanne Kessler active in Michael Bailey's non-public discussion list SEXNET.

                                        Kay Brown starts her Transsexual, Transgender, and Intersex History.  No mention of Blanchard or anything similar.
                                        • Frederick L. Whitam “Culturally Universal Aspects of Male Homosexual Transvestites and Transsexuals”. In Bonnie Bullough, Vern Bullough & James Elias (eds). Gender Blending. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. 1997. 


                                          Suspension of Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) funding for gender surgery.

                                          Jennifer Ross transitions with the Clarke GIC.

                                          Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) formed from a merger of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, the Addiction Research Foundation and the Queen Street Mental Health Centre.

                                          William Orobko transitions to Willow Arune.

                                          Maxine Petersen contributes to the 5th version of HBIGDA SOC.

                                          Maxine Petersen reviews Holly Devor's FTM: Female-to-Male Transsexuals in Society, and discovers autoandrophiles.


                                            Michelle Josef’s lawsuit to get gender surgery relisted under the Ontario Health Insurance Plan is supported by Ray Blanchard.

                                            Anne Lawrence works with Andrea James on possible book.

                                            Anne Lawrence gives two papers at the 16th Biennial Harry Benjamin Conference in London. Richard Ekins & Dave King incorporate her ideas into their concept of ‘erotic femaling’.

                                            ++ Kay Brown and Lynn Conway meet and discuss the two-type taxonomy.


                                            Kay Brown suspends her Transsexual, Transgender, and Intersex History.

                                            Robert Dicky and Maxine Petersen of the CAMH GIC denied Synthia Kavanagh approval for SRS in that, being in prison, she could not do a Real Life Test.
                                            • Ray Blanchard. “Autogynephilia and the Taxonomy of Gender Identity Disorders in Biological Males”. International Academy of Sex Research. Paris 2000. 

                                            Continued in Part 2.

                                            I have disabled comments here.  Please add your comments to Part 2.

                                              17 October 2010

                                              Frederick L. Whitam (1933 - 2009) sociologist.

                                              Whitam was raised in Mississippi. He did his PhD at Indiana University. He also taught at Millsaps College in Mississippi, the State University of New York’s Fashion Institute of Technology, and the University of Texas at Austin as well as being a professor of Sociology at Arizona State University in Tempe for 30 years.

                                              His first book was The Protestant Spanish Community in New York, 1960. He spoke Spanish and Portuguese fluently and traveled extensively in Latin American and the Philippines. He visited homosexual locations in Phoenix, Arizona; New York City; Cherry Grove, Fire Island, Long Island; Guatemala City; São Paulo, and Cebu, Philippines.

                                              His major work is Male Homosexuality in Four Societies: Brazil, Guatemala, the Philippines, and the United States which was published in 1986, only one year after the Clarke Institute's Gender Dyphoria. He argues that homosexuality and transvestic homosexuality is as natural as heterosexuality and occurs in all societies, and homosexuals in general tend to patterns of early cross-gender behavior.

                                              He used a standardized interview schedule of questions mainly concerned with the informant's retrospective analysis of their pasts. As Donovan points out, Whitam waffles the distinction between homosexual behavior and homosexual identity. His interest is in the 'effeminate' male homosexual more than in masculine homosexuals. He says that "drag … an intrinsic aspect of homosexuality (p82)".

                                              "The dichotomy between masculine and feminine homosexuals is not entirely a creation of the homosexual subculture. Rather, manifestations of cross-gender behavior appear early in homosexuals in all societies, and these persons usually enter the homosexual subculture with cross-gender patterns already evident, giving the subculture its cross-gendered dimension. (p69)".
                                              He protests the general assumption that transvestites are mainly heterosexual.
                                              "Some sex researchers have limited the use of the term transvestism to heterosexual transvestism, on the erroneous assumption that homosexual transvestism is just 'playing at cross-dressing'. Some heterosexual transvestites, not wanting to be identified as being homosexual, have insisted that they are the 'true transvestites' and take a demeaning attitude towards drag queens and female impersonators. (p80)."
                                              Like Blanchard, Whitam sees two types of transvestite, defined by sexual orientation, and attracted to quite different occupations, and that it is mainly the homosexual transvestites who are cross-gendered as children. In the paper that Whitam wrote for the Bulloughs in 1997 he also includes observations made in Thailand and Indonesia by other sociologists. He repeats his complaint about the heterosexual appropriation of the word transvestite. He lists 10 characteristics of "homosexual TVs/TSs":
                                              1. cross-gendered as children
                                              2. low levels of athletic interest as children
                                              3. early appearance of 'sissy' behavior
                                              4. do not cross-dress fetishistically
                                              5. manner of dress is theatrical and glamorous
                                              6. communities of such produce conspicuous entertainment forms
                                              7. most appealing occupations are entertainment, singing, dancing, acting
                                              8. often work in prostitution, hair styling, seamstress, maids, manicurists.
                                              9. high levels of genital sexual interest
                                              10. their partners tend to be heterosexual or bisexual men.
                                              He also remarks that the distinction between transvestite and transsexual is less important that the distinction between masculine gay men and transvestites/transsexuals.
                                              • Frederick L. Whitam. “The Homosexual Role: A Reconsideration”. The Journal of Sex Research. Vol 13, 1 Fed 1977: 1-11. Online at:
                                              • Frederick L. Whitam. “The Prehomosexual Male Child in Three Societies: The United States, Guatemala, Brazil”. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Vol 9, 2 1980.
                                              • Frederick L. Whitam and Robin M. Mathy. Male Homosexuality in Four Societies: Brazil, Guatemala, the Philippines, and the United States. New York: Praeger, 1986.
                                              • James M. Donovan. “Review: Male Homosexuality in Four Societies: Brazil, Guatemala, the Philippines, and the United States (Frederick L. Whitam and Robin M. Mathy, Praeger, 1986)" Anthropology Research Group on Homosexuality Newsletter Oct. 1987: 15-17”.
                                              • Frederick L. Whitam “Culturally Universal Aspects of Male Homosexual Transvestites and Transsexuals”. In Bonnie Bullough, Vern Bullough & James Elias (eds). Gender Blending. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. 1997.
                                              • Leonard Gordon. “Frederick L. Whitam, 1933-2009”. ASAFootnotes: Obituaries. 2009.

                                                Male Homosexuality in Four Societies: Brazil, Guatemala, the Philippines, and the United States and the Clarke Institute's Gender Dysphoria were published within a year of each other.  They both divide male born trans persons into two types based on sexual orientation and make rather similar comments about the two types.  There is no mention in Whitam of Blanchard, and I have not been able to find any mention of Whitam in the works of Blanchard or his followers.  Another example of two solitudes that should be talking to each other.  However it is a mark of pseudo-science that its authors are not interested in similar conclusions by other writers.

                                                Somewhat unusually for a sociologist, Whitam is a biological determinist.

                                                While he claims that transvestic homosexuals are universal, he pays no attention to, for example, Randolph Trumbach, who has written much on the emergence of the mollies in 18th century London.  Trumbach’s work would imply that transvestic homosexuals appear with a sufficient amount of urbanization, and as such are part of the modern world.

                                                In addition Whitam says nothing about Africa, the Arab nations or Europe.

                                                I agree wholeheartedly with Whitam re the heterosexual appropriation of transvestite (and also transgender).  See my comments on the non-inclusion of José Sarria in Susan Stryker’s Transgender History.

                                                However I am opposed to the post-Hirschfeld division of trans persons into two types based on sexual orientation.  There are heterosexual drag queens and female impersonators, fetishistic gay transvestites and gay transvestites whom you never describe as drag queens.

                                                15 October 2010

                                                Angie Xtravaganza (1966 – 1993) sex worker, performer.

                                                Angel Segarra was one of 13 children, of many different fathers, of an abusive Puerto Rican mother in the South Bronx.

                                                At the age of 15 she was taking female hormones, courtesy of the quack doctor Jimmy Treetop, and presenting as female on Christopher Street. She was inspired by Dorian Corey, and lived for a while in the House of Corey.

                                                At 16 she was a star at the voguing balls, standing out by her fashion sense, as opposed to the outlandish costumes of Corey and Pepper LaBeija. She won the prize for being the most convincing model.  She performed at Sally's Hideaway.

                                                She lived by turning tricks and was the house mother for the Xtravaganza clan, being regarded as a mother by trans women and hookers several years older than herself.

                                                Anji was diagnosed with Aids at the age of 25, and died of complications at the age of 27. Her ashes were sent back to the South Bronx, but under the name of Angel Segarra.

                                                10 October 2010

                                                Sanda Davis (1955 - ) psychotherapist, Mother God.

                                                Romanian-born Sanda Davis, has psychology degrees from the Universities of Bucharest and Ottawa, and wrote a doctorate thesis, Principes a Appliquer en Education Familiale, Surgis du Fonctionalisme Systémique, at the University of Mons, Belgium in 1999. However she is currently listing herself as "Phd Cnd". She published two books in 1995: Multiples in Love and Am I a Man or a Woman? Both by Personality Press which has not published anything by anyone else.

                                                She takes the concept of 'introjection', a term that has been used by psychoanalysts and Gestalt therapists, but puts her own spin on it. An introjection is an internal image of another person. We all have introjections, and for many they are no more than memories. Many of us have strong introjections where the memory becomes obsessive, especially if it is associated with trauma or abuse. In one of Davis' stronger examples she uses the concept of introjections to explain how abuse victims later become abusers themselves in that the remembered voice of the initial abuser is still inside and controlling the person.

                                                She sees multiple personalities (dissociative identity disorder) as competing introjections. She sees Gender Identity Disorder (her preferred term) as a special type of dissociative identity disorder in which one of the alternative identities (introjections) has become so dominant that it becomes the major personality.
                                                "All humans acquire Introjects. Depending on specific factors, Introjects may or may not lead to dissociation, even to severe forms of dissociation. Reflecting the person that is imprinted as an Introject, some Introjects are content with limited control, while others take over completely, using, abusing, and transforming the body. Such is the case with Gender Identity Disorder: a cross-gender Introject takes over the body, and demands gender reassignment.(DIFH:1.2)"
                                                "In most cases Gender Identity Disorder is a psychological disorder of traumatic origin that usually starts in early childhood, and afflicts millions of people in the entire world. Cross-dressing and transsexuality are the most popular manifestations of this disorder. In reality, GID is a much deeper disorder characterized by confusion, trance states, attention deficit, memory problems, headaches, psychosomatic symptoms,physical numbness, reduced or variable sexual potency, possible impotence, mood swings, reading and learning difficulties, potentially lethal depression, low self esteem, self mutilation and more.(DIFH: 2.1)"
                                                She explains that most men have introjections of their mothers, sisters, girls at school, wives etc, but in a male with GID these female introjections coalesce and become dominant. This composite introjection comes to think of itself as the true person in the body, and then starts wearing female clothing and proclaiming herself to be woman. Well-meaning friends and relatives make the situation worse by accepting the claim. Davis says that she can cure any case of GID by getting the female introjection to admit that she is not the true personality of the body.
                                                "Once the 'female' introject that splits the male's personality system is released and the original parts integrate, the male has no more Gender Dysphoria" (Davis, 1995:152).
                                                An obvious omission from her book is any discussion of religious experience in terms of introjections. However the Ottawa Citizen from 1997 quotes Davis saying that
                                                "she has seen demons surface in her psychotherapy clients, then laugh and walk out of the office with them. Other clients have been inhabited by the souls of the dead. "
                                                It also quotes the College of Psychologists of Ontario that
                                                "Ms. Davis can't legally advertise her services as a psychologist because she is not registered with the college. But she says there is nothing to stop anybody from advertising their services as a psychotherapist, or as a soul worker."
                                                At that time she was charging up to $80 a hour, and described herself as a "conservative Christian".
                                                Since then she has had an epiphany and realized that she is The Mother God. On her Blogger profile she says:
                                                "I am GOD. The Original GOD, in human form with infinite aspects to my being.
                                                Why are people not engaging in dialogue with me when I tell them who I am."
                                                She says that she is now able to cure paraplegia, quadriplegia, blindness, HIV, Dissociative Identity Disorder, Attention Deficit Disorder, Learning Disabilities, Gender Identity Disorder, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, The Stockholm Syndrome, Obsessive Compulsive Disorders, Sexual Disorders, Intractable Depression, Battered Women Syndrome, Chronic Pain, Chronic Fatigue, Numerous Psychosomatic Disorders, Chronic Anger, Chronic Violence, and more.

                                                She is located in Burlington, Ontario.

                                                  For those of you who think that autoandrophilia was Ontario’s greatest gift to gender theory, here is an unexpected delight.

                                                  Davis lists many Blanchard papers in her bibliography, discusses autoandrophilia in her text,  but neither he nor it is in her index.

                                                  She speaks mainly of female introjects in male bodies, and only briefly of male introjects in female bodies.   She is hardly alone in this bias.

                                                  One of the good practices of psychoanalysis is that all psychoanalysts must themselves be psychoanalyzed.  Has Sanda spoken to another psychotherapist about her Mother God Introjection?

                                                  09 October 2010

                                                  Kelly Lynn Martin (1969 - ) systems developer.

                                                  Scott Goehring was raised in Indiana and was educated at Purdue University and Indiana University. He was married, as an undergraduate, to a wife whose previous husband had been a Scientologist. They had two children. 

                                                  In 1991 he founded the Usenet Group alt.religion.scientology, and controversially added a mail id to the application which implied a Scientology co-sponsor. By 1995 the Usenet group had become a high-volume group with confrontations between skeptics, and believers, cancelbots and law suits. 
                                                  By then Kelly and Scott were involved in the Agoran Nomic MUD gaming. In 1999 Kelly came out as transgender to the Agoran Nomic MUD community and acknowledged that she and Scott were the same person. In 2001 Scott and his wife were divorced, and Scott legally became Kelly Martin. 

                                                  In 2004 Kelly joined Wikipedia and quickly rose through sysop to the Arbitration Committee. In 2006 she was forced to resign. She works as a systems developer in Linux and Windows environments.

                                                  * Not the television actress.

                                                  Note that the Wikipedia page was initially called "Scott Goehring", and then renamed to "alt.religion.scientology".

                                                  Religious Freedom Watch, like CCHR, is part of the Church of Scientology.  A well-known HBS organizer is a registered CCHR investigator and promotes CCHR on her site.   Note that the Religious Freedom Watch includes a photograph of Kelly, refers to her all through as "Scott Goehring", and uses only male pronouns.

                                                  07 October 2010

                                                  Jamie Lee Hamilton (1955 - 2019) sex worker, activist, political candidate.

                                                  James Arthur Hamilton was raised in Vancouver. His father, an immigrant from the US, was a foundry worker and union organizer until he developed silicosis of the lungs. His mother was a Chippewa native, originally from Montana, and a founder of the Vancouver Aboriginal Friendship Centre. Together they co-founded the Unemployed Citizens Welfare Improvement Council (UCWIC), and were among the first members of the Downtown Eastside Residents' Association (DERA).

                                                  However they did not understand about transsexuality, although their child became a patient of William Maurice at the University of British Columbia Health Centre, and as such the first teenager in Canada to be accepted as transsexual. James was taunted at school and left at 15.

                                                  She turned tricks both as male and as female and worked in bars as a female impersonator. She became Jamie Lee in 1975. Her father, who had been reading up on transsexuality, gave his blessing though on his death bed in 1979. Jamie Lee completed her transition with surgery in 1983.

                                                  In 1984, a residents' movement in Vancouver's West End obtained an injunction in the BC Supreme Court that completed the pushing of sex workers and deinstitutionalized psychiatric patients into the industrial no-man's land of Downtown Eastside. Jamie Lee became an activist for her local community, for sex workers, for aboriginals, for transsexuals and gays.

                                                  She held various positions in Downtown Eastside Residents' Association (DERA). She organized DERA demonstrations when long-term residents were evicted for Expo 86. She was elected the 10th Native Princess, 1988, and the same year was the founding president of the Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE) sub local 15, which is still going. She was Ms Gay Vancouver, 1991, which led to her performing with the New York travelling cast of A Chorus Line. In 1993 she started a hot meal and food bank program for trans sex workers from the First United Church. From 1993-7 she ran a clothing boutique, food bank and drop-in for sex workers.

                                                  She first ran for a seat on Vancouver City council in 1996, the first trans person in Canada to run for public office. She came 14th out of 58, the first 10 being elected. Xtra West awarded her their Community Hero Award. From 1996 to 2001 she ran Grandma's House, a non-profit centre for sex workers, and agitated to bring attention to the missing women in the period before the arrest of serial killer Robert Pickton.

                                                  She dumped 67 pairs of stiletto shoes on the steps of City Hall to symbolize 67 missing women. In 2000 she was arrested and charged with running a bawdy house. Her release was conditional that she close Grandma's house. She is the founder of Change the Code, a national lobby group advocating legal reforms re prostitution. She ran for member of Parliament for the Green Party in 2000. In 2006 she campaigned successfully against an attempt to trademark the word 'Pride'. In 2008 she attempted to run as a parks board candidate, but was dropped as a candidate as being too controversial. In 2009 she was one of many refused service at Lu's women-only pharmacy.

                                                  She is again running a community centre for sex workers. She is doing a thesis at the University of British Columbia: "The Expulsion of Sex Workers from Vancouver's West End, 1975-1985".  She has a list of over 25 women who have disappeared since Pickton was arrested, and argues that there is at least one other similar killer.

                                                  ++ Jamie died at age 64 after a battle with cancer.

                                                  “Hamilton is, famously, 'an unrepentant whore.'  Is she also an unrepentant madam? Sitting with her recently, I ask point-blank, 'So, were you running a bawdy house?'  She looks nonplussed: 'Well, yeah.' A hand flicks at some imaginary dirt on a cushion. 'But so is every five-star hotel in this country.'

                                                  'And you know what I really resented? They called it a common bawdy house. Listen, there was nothing common about it.'"
                                                  The Unrepentant Whore: How Jamie Lee Hamilton
                                                  changed the way we look at Canada’s underclass.

                                                  The biography of Jamie Lee Hamilton by Barbra Daniel seems to be totally unobtainable.  Neither Amazon, nor any other retailer, has a copy.  I tried and failed to get it through interlibrary loan.  As it was published in Canada, there should be a copy in the National Library of Canada, but there is not.

                                                  05 October 2010

                                                  Jimmy De Forest (185? – 1932) trapeze artist, fight trainer

                                                  At the age of five Jimmy was an arieliste with the De Forest Aerial Troup as Mlle Petite De Forest, in line with the circus tradition that more customers would pay to see a girl trapeze artist.

                                                  De Forest & Dempsey, June 1919
                                                  At the age of 12 he quit and drifted into the Bowery fight clubs. He went to Europe to learn training and massage in military camps. On return to the US he earned a reputation as a trainer and manager. He managed Jack Dempsey and other major boxers.

                                                  He retired in 1926. He died in Long Branch, New Jersey after a long illness and in poverty.
                                                    • “Jimmy DeForest dies in poverty”. Oct 12, 1932. Oswego Palladium Timespdf 
                                                    • L.H.Hamsley. “Imposters in Petticoats”. In David O.  Cauldwell (ed). Transvestism … men in female dress. New York: Sexology Corporation. 1956: 66.

                                                  03 October 2010

                                                  Lars Larsson Molin (1785 – 1845) thief, chef.

                                                  Lars was raised in Ramsberg, Sweden. He became a notorious thief famous for stealing from the rich. He often dressed as female supposedly to catch his marks off-guard, and to escape easily. However he wore female clothing on other occasions, and was said to prefer it.

                                                  He, as Lasse-Maja (Lars-Maria), was employed at one time as a cook in the Royal Kitchens.

                                                  He was caught thieving several time and imprisoned in the Örebro Castle, but was able to escape. He was caught again in 1813 after stealing silver from the church in Järfälla, outside Stockholm, and sentenced to life imprisonment at the fort of Carlsten in Marstrand.

                                                  He was a model prisoner, worked in the kitchens, and wrote his autobiography. He became a tourist attraction for the upper-classes who spent the summer in Marstrand. Karl Johan Bernadotte, the Crown Prince, the future Karl XIV Johan of Sweden and Karl III Johan of Norway was one of these visitors, and many years later in 1839, he as king pardoned Lars and had him released.

                                                  Lars then toured the country talking about his life.

                                                  A film (IMDB) was made about Lasse-Maja in 1941, and there was a television series about him on Swedish Television in the 1970s.

                                                  01 October 2010

                                                  Bellino (1732 - ?1790) castrato impersonator.

                                                  Angiola Calori was raised in Bologna, where her mother took in lodgers. 

                                                  According to Giacomo Casanova's memoirs, she had an early affair with the renowned opera castrato Salimbeni, and that Salimbeni suggested that she pass as a castrato (a male soprano who had been  gelded before puberty to retain his vocal range) to avoid the attentions of men, and promised that he would get her a job with the Elector of Saxony, but died before he could do so. 

                                                  Nevertheless she became the castrato Bellino, and thus was able to sing on stage in the Papal States. She claimed that she had been able to pass the examination (carried out by an elderly priest) with the aid of an addition taped to her body in the appropriate position. 

                                                  Casanova felt that Bellino could not be a castrato, and seduced him to be sure. He refers to her as Teresa Lanti and claims that she raised his son as her supposed brother. 

                                                  Angiola apparently married Cirello Palesi circa 1760, and became a famous soprano. Some books, following Casanova, refer to her as Teresa Lanti Palesi. 

                                                  Heriot points out that Bellino's meeting with Casanova took place in 1744, but that Salimbeni's death is recorded as 1751. He thinks that Casanova perhaps confused two singers, and that the castrato in question was Giuseppe Appiani, who was born in the same year and place as Salimbeni, and who did die in Bologna in 1742. 

                                                  More to the point, if her birth year was 1732 as given by Willard Trask, it is highly unlikely that Bellino was an established performer in 1744 as she would have been only 12. 

                                                  Nettl assumes that the tale is largely false, but also tells us that a portrait of Teresa may be seen in a Milanese theatrical museum, but does not specify which one. 

                                                  Bellino is a character in the Simon Capet film, Evirati, 2000, and the 2005 Russell T Davies BBC mini-series Casanova, but not in the Hollywood film of 2005, nor in Fellini’s film of 1976.

                                                  • Giacomo Casanova. Histoire de ma vie jusqu'à l'an 1797. Manuscript in the Bibliothèque nationale de France.
                                                  • Giacomo Casanova edited by Willard Trask. History of my Life. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World 1966-1971 . Vol 2, Chps I, II, Vol 7 Chp VII, VIII, Vol 10 Chp IX, n29, Chp X, n36.
                                                  • Paul Nettl. "Casanova and Music". The Music Quarterly. 15,2 Apr 1929: 212-232.
                                                  • Angus Heriot,. The Castrati in Opera. New York: Da Capo, 1956. paperback. 1975: 277, 182.
                                                  • "Giacomo Casanova". Wikipedia: L'enciclopedia libera.

                                                  There is a continuing debate among Casanovistas to what extent Bellino  was a literary construct by Casanova, even if Angiola Calori was a real soprano.  I did consider putting this article in my arts blog, but on balance decided to go with a historical Bellino.  

                                                  The en.wikipedia article does not even mention Bellino, so I used the it.wikipedia article instead (with my husband’s assistance).  For a summary of the argument re whether Bellino is a literary construct see footnote 11 of the it.wikipedia article.

                                                  Not even the it.wikipedia site has an entry on Angiola Calori.