This site is the most comprehensive on the web devoted to trans history and biography. Well over 1700 persons worthy of note, both famous and obscure, are discussed in detail, and many more are mentioned in passing.

There is a detailed Index arranged by vocation, doctor, activist group etc. There is also a Place Index arranged by City etc. This is still evolving.

In addition to this most articles have one or more labels at the bottom. Click one to go to similar persons. There is a full list of labels at the bottom of the right-hand sidebar. There is also a search box at the top left. Enjoy exploring!

31 October 2015

In the news …

Tara Hudson, Bristol, convicted of assault and sentenced to 12 weeks imprisonment, was sent to a men’s prison until there was a kerfuffle in the press and in Parliament, and then she was transferred to a women’s prison.   The article in Pink News says:  “Current policy states that a Gender Recognition Certificate is required for trans prisoners to be placed in the correct prison for their gender, which Ms Hudson did not have despite living full-time as female for six years.”

So what happened to the New Prison Guidelines of November 2011?
"An establishment must permit prisoners who consider themselves transsexual and wish to begin gender reassignment to live permanently in their acquired gender …
the prisoner is considered to have the protected characteristic of gender reassignment for the purposes of the Equality Act 2010 and must not be discriminated against or harassed because of this …
Establishments must put in place measures to manage the risk of transphobic harassment and transphobic hate crime …”
This was reported in Pink News and elsewhere.   Up to that date convicted trans persons were avoiding prison sentences because there was no safe place to put them, and the Daily Mail was having conniptions about this.

Why does Pink News no longer remember the New Prison Guidelines?  Likewise The Guardian, and every other news source.  Did the Conservative Government quietly abolish the New Prison Guidelines, and if so why does no news source tell us so?

Sandra MacDougall is back in the news.  MacDougall, who had been with the army in Northern Ireland, was featured in several newspapers in 2002 when her transition was not going very well, and she was suffering abuse from people in the small town in Ayrshire where she lived.  Lynn Conway included Sandra in an article, still available, on transsexual regrets along with Renée Richards, Danielle Berry and Charles Kane.  I was uncomfortable about this article in that I feel that any more-trans-than-thou game is very sterile.   It is for the more successful transsexuals (such as Lynn) to help and advise the less successful rather than to tell them not to consider transition.

This month Sandra, now 63, is in the news in that her pension has been suspended because she does not have a Gender Recognition Certificate and has not reached the male retirement age.  

Context: The pension age in the UK used to be 60 for women and 65 for men.   This was ruled discriminatory, and the female retirement age is gradually being raised to parity with the male.   This will be achieved in 2018, and then both male and female retirement ages will rise together to 66 by 2020.   There are many women in the UK now in their late 50s or early 60s who had been expecting to retire at 60 and now have to work until 66.

Sandra finds herself in the middle of this transition.   If she were a few years younger she would have had to wait until age 65 or 66 irrespective of gender history.

Sandra did not obtain a Gender Recognition Certificate.   I can sympathise.   The Gender Recognition Panel have shown themselves to be quite perverse in their demands.   In my case they initially demanded that I divorce the husband that I married after transition.  There were however two reasons to persevere with them: to obtain a pension at 60, and to marry in the UK.    The former does not apply for any trans woman born 1955 or later; and the latter no longer applies of course since the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013 (except in Northern Ireland).

It appears that it would also be useful to have a GRC if you end up in prison (see above).  

For those who did persevere, the GRP not only issued their GRC but also liaised with National Insurance to change one’s name and gender in the pension database, and many of us got our pension at age 60 with no problem.

Another context is that the current government, David Cameron’s Conservative Party, affectionately known as the Nasty Party, has been attacking the working poor and those on benefits so that they can reduce taxes for the better off.   There have been many stories in the press about disabled persons who can hardly walk, who are ruled ‘fit to work’.   Some of these died of their disability shortly afterwards (the shock of losing benefits can hardly have helped), and others were driven to suicide.

In this context it is easy to think that managers have been instructed to look for women aged under 65 drawing a pension whose paperwork is not up to snuff.  I expect others, in addition to Sandra, will be found soon.

28 October 2015

Bebe Scarpinato (1951 - 2019) activist, teacher, performer

In the early 1970s, Bebe Scarpi(nato) had graduated from Queens College, New York (which she denied choosing for its name) where she'd founded a Gay Community organization.

She became active in the Gay Activist Alliance, where she met Sylvia Rivera. Sylvia felt that GAA was not radical enough, but never actually left the organization. It was Bebe who ensured that Sylvia's dues were paid up.

Scarpi was also in the Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries, was director of the Queens Liberation Front (QLF), was on the originating board of the National Gay Task Force and was active in planning the fourth Christopher Street Liberation Day (which later became the New York Pride March).

However there were problems with many gay activists:

"You don't have to embrace stereotypes in order to be gay so it was looked at as an anachronistic method of trying to be gay and in the truly liberated society there would be no cross gender identity. You could be a feminine man, but you wouldn't opt to dress and act like a woman." (Cohen p108).
In November 1971, the androgynously-dressed Bebe was called to testify before the New York City Council's General Welfare committee. The Gay Activist reported:
" 'Bebe' Scarpi, a transvestite in male attire, gave testimony on the minority group, he pointed out that transvestites used the men's room because they 'd been warned they would be subject to arrest if they entered the ladies room. And even transvestites had to heed the call of nature. Bebe, a student at Queens College, gave what amounted to a short course on the lifestyle and problems of transvestites with such charm, ready wit and intelligence, that even the Councilmen appeared beguiled. … Chairman Sharison seemed unable to comprehend that some transvestites were heterosexual. He wanted to know whether Bebe believed transvestites would be protected by Intro 475. 'Only as a homosexual, not as a transvestite', Bebe explained, and perhaps the councilman would care to enact legislation protecting the transvestite." (Quoted in Cohen p 150)
At a third hearing in December, policemen were posted outside the ladies rooms to prevent 'transvestites' from using them. Bebe, definitely not androgynous that day, asked the policeman what he was doing, and then went in and did her business. On the way out she commented to the policeman that he had not checked her. The New York Mattachine Times complained that transvestites were jeopardizing the bill with their restroom behavior.

In 1973 the committee was still blocked in its attempt to pass a bill to ban discrimination against homosexuals in employment, housing and public accommodation. To get it passed, an amendment was proposed that nothing in the definition of sexual orientation “shall be construed to bear upon the standards of attire or dress code". Bebe, as QLF director, was put in the uncomfortable position of submitting to this wording or seeing the bill fail.

For the Christopher Street Liberation Day in June 1973, Bebe went to the 82 Club and got the showgirls, in full regalia to march behind an 82 Club banner.

In 1974 Bebe attended a feminist conference where Jill Johnston, mother of two and author of Lesbian Nation, had proposed that mothers neglect to care for male babies. Bebe, from the question line, accused Johnston of being a neo-fascist and dictating to women as well as to men. At this point Bebe was recognized from earlier encounters.

Scarpie was the Editor of Drag Magazine, and an associate for 20 years of Lee Brewster's.

In addition she started a career as a high school teacher. When she was not teaching she worked as a stripper.
"Stripping is such a liberating experience; I would strongly recommend everyone to try it".
It was commented that she looked like a middle-class lady. Bebe is the first known trans woman to become a school principal.
"I've never identified myself as transgender. I prefer drag queen. I've always been a 'she' and always will be." (quoted by Lee)

22 October 2015

The Financial Times list of LGBT executives

The Financial Times has released its 2015 list of 100 LGBT Executives .   

It is no surprise that there are very few trans women – and no trans men at all – on the list.

4 Martin Rothblatt      CEO at United Therapeutics Corporation

61 Antonia Belcher      Building consultant

And in their Future Leaders  list:

7 Amy Stanning  Shared Services Director at Barclays Bank.

In 2014 The Financial Times List included

47 Margaret Stumpp  at  Quantitative Management Associates, a subsidiary of Prudential Financial,

96 Isabella Segal   Senior partner at accounting firm, Nyman Libson Paul

In 2013 The First Financial Times List included

33 Margaret Stumpp


See also executives, more in the past than current, who have been featured on this site.

19 October 2015

Sports, Gender and trans-Part 3: recent developments

Part 1: to 1945
Part 2: the Cold War
Part 3: recent developments

Sex testing continued another 10 years beyond the end of the Cold War, but the arguments for it were becoming less persuasive.  Not that problems for intersex women were over, especially in Asia where sport associations were slow to adopt the new approach. On the other hand, transsexual athletes were coming out and competing.   The attitude of the IAAF and the IOC was that regulations were required for transsexuals, and they came up with the Stockholm Consensus, which is a step forward, but contains requirements that are not available in all countries.

The supposed physical advantage of trans women over cis women failed to materialize as trans women athletes failed to make it on to their nation’s Olympic teams despite being being allowed to compete.

1990 Gay Games III - Vancouver

7,300 competitors.
A Christian homophobe takes out full page ads in the Vancouver papers condemning the event as proof of an "impending sodomite invasion" and encourages residents to gather at Empire Stadium to pray against the event. The British Columbia government refuses funding for the event.
++James Hayes competes in NASCAR Winston Cup. 
1991 Cis bodybuilder Bev Francis denied a win in Ms Olympia contest because of low score on ‘femininity’.
April Capwill in news, as others claim that she has an unfair advantage in women’s running events.
++James Hayes in a near fatal racing accident. 
1992 Barcelona Olympics 9356 male competitors, 2701 female.
IOC introduces new sex test based on sex determining region of Y chromosome.  2406 female competitors subjected to a sex test.  11 women fail the test, but they were not identified, and we don’t know whether they were allowed to compete.
35 countries still sent all-male delegates.
The first Games without boycotts since 1972.
Maria Jose Martinez Patino failed to qualify by hundredths of a second.
14 out GLBT competitors.  7 won medals.
1st Olympic Gay and Lesbian Visitors Centre.
Return of post-Apartheid South Africa.
Now-united Germany send a single team.
Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia send national teams.  Other Soviet republics compete as ‘Unified Team”.
Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovinia sent national teams.  The rump of Yugoslavia is subject to UN sanctions and may not compete.
Baseball an Olympic sport for the first time.  Medals taken by Cuba, Taipei and Japan.
1992 IAAF drops all sex testing on grounds a) doping regulations required athletes to pass urine in front of a witness b) modern sportswear is so revealing that a man could not masquerade as a woman.
1st gay Eurogames – The Hague.
International Gay and Lesbian Football Association founded.
++Gerry Greenberg writes England Rugby star Wade Dooley's autobiography.
1993 Euro games II – The Hague. Opened by the Dutch Minister of Sport.
1994 Gay Games IV – New York City. 10, 864 competitors – more than the Olympics.  25th anniversary of Stonewall.
US lifts ban on HIV+ persons entering the US but only for the duration of the games.
1994 James Hayes transitions as Terri O’Connell, surgery by Dr Biber.
1995 Mianne Bagger completes transition.
Eurogames III – Frankfurt. 
1996 Eurogames IV - Berlin
++Thai volleyball team Iron Ladies win national championship. Some of Kathoey players try for national team but are rejected.
Michelle Dumaresq completes transition.
1996 Atlanta Olympics 6797 male competitors, 3523 female.
3387 female competitors subjected to a sex test.
Brazilian judoka Edinanci Fernandes da Silva and 7 others fail the new Y-region sex test, but allowed to compete anyway after further examination.  3 had Complete AIS, and 4 had Partial AIS.
29 GLBT competitors, 15 win medals.
In a poll of female competitors, 82% felt that testing should continue and 94% said that the tests did not make them ‘anxious’.
Iran sent first female competitor.
The ex-Soviet republics send separate teams.  Yugoslavia was allowed to send a team. Czech Republic and Slovakia send separate teams.
US terrorist exploded pipe bomb, killed 1, injured 111.
1997 Heidi Kreiger transitions to Andreas.
Danielle Swope completes surgery to remove ambiguity.
Eurogames V – Paris.
++Gerry Greenberg, sports writer, starts transition.
1998 Nagano Winter Olympics 1389 male competitors, 787 female.
679 female competitors who do not have certification from a previous Olympics are subjected to a sex test.   This is the last Olympics to have sex tests.
1998 Gay Games V - Amsterdam 14,715 competitors – more than any other multi-sport event, gay or straight, before or since. 
1998 Iyabo Abade has sex test and is barred from women’s football.
Nong Tum, openly kathoey, wins first of 22 Muay Thai fights.  ++Nong Tum invited to Tokyo to fight Kyoko Inoue, champion female wrestler who has defeated male opponents and of an higher weight category.  Tum won. 
late 1990s

American Medical Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, The American College of Physicians, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Endocrine Society, and the American Society of Human Genetics call for elimination of sex verification,stating that the method used is uncertain and ineffective.
1999 IOC drops sex testing.
Ewa Kłobukowska rehabilitated.
Michelle Duff publishes her autobiography.
Michelle Dumaresq wins mountain biking competition.
Nong Tum completes transition.
Eurogames VI Manchester
2000 Bev Francis inducted into Body-building Hall of Fame.
Li Anne Taft and Tammy Wronski barred from Na Wahine O Ke Kai paddling until ACLU intervention.
Renée Richards inducted into USTA Eastern Tennis Hall of Fame.
Eurogames VII – Zurich.  started.
Peter Sonksen analyses testosterone levels for around 650 Olympic athletes. Almost 5 percent of the women were in the male range for testosterone and more than 6 percent of the men were in the female range
2000 Sydney Olympics 6582 male competitors, 4069 female.
1st Olympics in 3 decades without blanket sex testing.
Bahrain sends first female competitors.
Afghanistan barred because of the Taliban’s oppression of women, and prohibition of sports.
Yvonne Buschbaum 6th female pole-vaulter. Germany.
Erika Coimbra Bronze volleyball for Brazil.  Questions are raised about her sex, but she is allowed to continue.
42 GLBT competitors, 19 win medals.
Closing ceremony included a parade of 50 drag queens.
2002 Gay Games VI - Sydney 13,000 competitors
2002 Michelle Dumaresq, cyclist, licensed to race as a woman.  Wins the Canada Cup series.
Ando Hiromasa, speed boat racer, transitiones after 17 years in the sport.
Yvonne Buschbaum Bronze in polevaulting. 
2003 Santo Domingo Pan-American Games Edinanci Fernandes da Silva, Gold in judo for Brazil
2003 Chris Dale ascends Dun Dubh, Britain’s last unclimbed mountain.
++Gerry Greenbery completes transition as  Donna Gee.
Eurogames VIII - Copenhagen
2004 Statement of the Stockholm Consensus on Sex Reassignment in Sports which sets out rules for trans people in sports: Those who have undergone sex reassignment and associated hormone therapy prior to puberty can now compete; those who begin their transition after puberty are eligible for participation if surgical anatomical changes, hormone therapy and legal gender change have been completed.
Footballer Iyabo Abade becomes James Johnson with surgery in Los Angeles funded by the Nigerian Government.
++Zainab Rabie, Bahraini shot-putter, has home searched for performance enhancing drugs, as she has masculine build and deep voice.  
Danielle Swope banned from female golfing because of birth certificate.
Mianne Bagger first trans golfer allowed in women’s tournament after Australian association removed ‘female at birth’ requirement.
Michelle Dumaresq finishes 17th at World Mountain Bike Championships.
Christina Kahrl, sports writer, transitions.
++Frank Maloney, boxing manager, UKIP candidate for London mayor, makes negative comments about LGBT people.
Gay Games drop Montreal in favour of Chicago.  Montreal organizers found Outgames.
Eurogames IX – Munich.
2004 Athens Olympics IOC admits trans athletes in target gender under the Stockholm Consensus.
Renee Richards quoted as saying that trans women should not be allowed to compete with female athletes.
25 GLBT competitors, 11 win medals.
2005 Shanthi Soundarajan wins the 880 metres, 1,500 m and 3,000 m events at Bangalore. At the Asian Championships at Incheon, South Korea she wins the 800 m silver medal.
Eurogames X – Utrecht.
++Hussain Rabie transitions.
++Natalie van Gogh, racing cyclist, transitions
2006 Peter/Pip Wherrett comes out as trans.
Gay Games VII – Chicago.
1st OutGames – Montreal.  Cis Montreal MP Réal Ménard competes in wrestling.
Pinki Pramanik Gold in 4x400 m relay for India at Melbourne Commonwealth Games; 3 Golds for India at Colombo South Asian Games.
2006 Doha Asian Games Shanthi Soundarajan wins the 800 m silver medal at the Asian Games in Doha.  She then fails a subsequent sex test and is stripped of the medal, despite the fact that persons with similar intersex conditions are now accepted by the Olympics.
Pinki Pramanik Gold in 4x400 m relay for India.
2007 Foekje Dillema dies.  Max Dohle published her biography.
Mike Penner, sports writer at Los Angeles Times publicly transitiones as Christine Daniels.
Bobbie Dittmeier, sports writer, transitions.
Sarah Gronert, submits to sex testing and the World Tennis Association allows her to compete.
Joanna Harper, runner accepted as female member of USATF.
++Renée Richards 2nd autobiography, No Way Renée.
2007 Rio de Janeiro Pan-American Games Edinanci Fernandes da Silva, Gold in judo for Brazil
2008 Peter Drouyn transitions to Westerly Windina on national television.
++Natalie van Gogh, cyclist, 1º in Omloop van Strijen, , (Strijen (F)) , Strijen (Noord-Brabant),  1º in Batavus Zomerrace/ Voorjaarsrace, , (Heerenveen (F)) , Heerenveen (Friesland).
Heinrich/Dora Ratjen dies at age 90.
Christine Daniels returns to being Mike Penner.
Hussain Rabie, diabled shot-putter and discus thrower, recognised as male by Bahraini High Civil Court.
Yvonne Buschbaum transitions as Balian.
++Terri O’Connell publishes autobiography.
South African cis footballer Eudy Simelane, on national women’s team, raped and murdered.
2008 Bejing Olympics War between Georgia and Russia starts on the opening day.
The Chinese Olympics Commmitte announce the re-introduction of sex testing for selected women. 
UAE sent two Dubai princesses as first female competitors. 
24 GLBT competitors, 11 win medals.
Kristen Worley, cyclist, is not able to qualify for the Canadian team because of family illness.
2009 Patti Swansson, sports writer, transitions.
Pip Wherrett dies.
Mike Penner commits suicide.
Sarah Gronert wins two tournaments.
Lana Lawless, Palm Springs, wins female Long Drive Championship. In reponse the association changed its rules to require ‘female at birth’ matching the LPGA.  Lawless sues both.
Cis athlete Caster Semenya, South African runner, wins gold in 800 metres and 1500 m at the Athletics World Championships.  Although 15 women had run faster, she has her sex questioned and is tricked into taking a sex test. She is enthusiastically supported by South Africans.
++Frank Maloney managed boxer Rendall Munroe as he fought for world Super bantamwight championship.  Then  suffered heart attack, and was admitted to hospital after boxer Darran Sutherland hanged himself.
Sanam XI, an hijra cricket team, beat the local club in Sukkur, Sindh.
Mercedes Newbiggin, light middlewight boxer, starts transition.
++Jennifer McCreath runs in Boston marathon, and wins a gold medal for achievement in the 2009 World OutGames in Copenhagen . She ran the 1500 metre freestyle swim and marathon run in the third gender category.
World Outgames II – Copenhagen.  Three bombs are thrown.  Dean Koga, the only athlete injured, wins gold next day.
Kristen Worley  co-founder of Coalition of Athletes for Inclusion in Sport (CAIS).
++Chris Moser competes in female NYC triathlon.
2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics Women’s ski jumping excluded.  This was in conflict with Canadian law but court ruled that IOC was beyond the reach of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
2010 Caster Semenya cleared to run. 
Chris Tina Bruce, bodybuilder, transitions.
Leyla Çalışkan, Turkish basketball coach.
Donna Rose, wrestler.
++Chris Moser competes as male, featured in The Advocate.
++Diane Neil, rugby player and landscape gardener, transitioned.
Kye Allums continues to play women’s college basketball as not yet taking testosterone.
++Jennifer McCreath runs in Boston marathon.
++Mikki Nicholson won the British National Scrabble championship.

Kristen Worley goes to India to speak out for Shanthi Soundarajan.
US Ladies Professional Golf Association voted to remove its ‘female at birth’ rule as being sued by Lana Lawless** see comment below
At convention in Manchester, Gay Games and Out Games agree to join together.
Owen Anderson, editor of Peak Performance, was quoted: “Using fair velocity comparisons, in heights per second, not meters per second, the fastest woman in the world is almost 2 percent faster than the quickest man.”
2011 Chris Dale dies.
Chicago Outfit Roller Derby League now permits trans women.
Chris Mosier competes in New York City Triathlon as a man.
++Kye Allums, who continued playing on a womens’ basketball team before taking hormones, suffered a series of concussions, and had to stop participating.
Footballer Jonny Saelua part of American Samoan team in its World cup victory over Tonga.
Chris Tina Bruce, US bodybuilder.
Alyn Libman, US,  competes in the men’s figure skating.
US National Collegiate Athletic Association, after taking advice from National Center on Lesbian Rights removed requirement of surgery to be recognized as target gender.
++Brigitte Boréale, sports journalist on Pink TV, Paris.
++Frank Maloney retired from boxing.
++Natalie van Gogh, cyclist,  1º in Wielerronde van Nispen, , (Nispen (F)) , Nispen (Noord-Brabant).
++Terri O’Connell racing again in an all-female team.
++Renée, film biography of Renée Ricahrds. 
2012 London Olympics

Coincides with Ramadan.
Qatar, Brunei & Saudi Arabia send first female competitors. 
First Olympics where women compete in all 26 sports on offer, but in 30 fewer events, except for exclusion of women’s canoe racing events in violation of the Equality Acts.
IOC: Women who test in the male range for testosterone, and whose bodies respond to the hormone, may not be eligible to compete as females.
Caster Semenya leads South African team in Opening Ceremony.
Cis stuntman Gary Connery in drag as Betty Windsor parachuting at Opening Ceremony.
GLBT Pride House abandoned after funding and sponsorship difficulties.
++The third Olympics since the Stockholm Consensus on Sex Reassignment in Sports. However almost no trans athletes qualify.

OutGames & GayGames announce that they cannot agree.
Pinki Pramanik’s ex-wife accused her of rape and of being a man, and she is obliged to take a sex test.
Lindsay Walker, US basketball.
++Natalie van Gogh, cyclist, 1º in Ronde van de Bakkerstraat, , (Bovenkarspel (F)) , Bovenkarspel (Noord-Holland).
Keelin Godsey, women’s hammer throw, not yet on testosterone, fails to make the US Olympics team.
++Malcolm McGregor announces impending transition to Cate in final chapter of An Indian Summer of Cricket
++The first comprehensive history of Sports, Gender and Trans, in 3 parts by Zagria.
++Pablo S. Torre & David Epstein. “The Transgender Athlete”. SI Vault, May 28, 2012.
++Tranny Olympics, Bethnal Green Working Men’s Club, Tower Hamlets, London, 4 August, and Berlin.
++Drag Queen Olympics, Amsterdam.  Video.
++Brooke Fantelli, off-road racer, doing a photo shoot in the California desert when a Bureau of Land Management ranger checked papers, takes offence that Fantelli is trans and tasers her in the groin. She files a federal lawsuit.
++Gabrielle Ludwig, 50, 6'8", returns to playing basketball.
++Savannah Burton, as a male, represented Canada at the World Dodgeball Federation World Championships in Kuala Lumpur, finishing in second place.
++Lindsey Walker, 26, 7’0”, basketball player, contacts Guinness Book of Records re being world’s tallest transsexual.
++Sasha Hostyn, 18, dominates in Starcraft 2 championship in Toronto, winning $15,000.
++Thai boxer Usanakorn Kokietgym accused of having too much testosterone.
2013 ++Aeris Houlihan is told by England Football Association that cannot play on women's team until two years after her operation.
++Bobbie Lancaster, golfer, tries out for LPGA tour.
++Cory Oskam gets to skate with hockey star Cory Schneider.
++Drew-Ashlyn Cunningham, of My Transsexual Summer is now UK's 1st trans wrestler.
++Fallon Fox, MMA fighter, comes out in an interview with Outsports, and some challenge her right to fight females.
++Harley Ryder, wrestler.
++Taylor Edelmann, volleyball captain.
++Tony Bias, school basketball player, Los Angeles.

++Catherine McGregor featured on ABC's Australian Story.   She continues to play and to write about Cricket.
++Renée Richards 3rd autobiography, Spy Night and Other Memories.  
++Bobbi Lancaster, LPGA Golfer thinks that her pre-transition past does give her an unfair advantage, and therefore chooses to play against younger women.
++Chloie Jonsson, personal trainer, Santa Cruz, California, banned from competing in women's section of CrossFit Games. Sues.
++Dutee Chand, 17, cis Indian athlete, dropped from the Commonwealth Games contingent at the last minute after the Athletic Federation of India states that hyperandrogenism made her ineligible to compete as a female athlete.
++Enza Anderson and Savannah Burton, after two months practice, as part of Team TRANS-fusion, comes 4th out of 5 in a 22km rowing race on the Ottawa river.
++Fallon Fox, 38, the controversy of her fighting in female MMA matches continues. The Case Against. Fallon's reply.
++Jaiyah Saelua plays football for American Samoa in a FIFA qualifier, and breaks a long losing streak.  ++Kinnon MacKinnon, 28, Toronto, wins in powerlifting at Gay Games 9 in Cleveland.
++Michelle Diamond, goal umpire, officiating Victorian Amateur Football Association matchs.
++Pinki Pramanik, track athlete, previously charged with rape and assault by her girlfriend, exonerated
++Natasha Payne, 51, takes bronze in the World Pole-Dancing Championships.
++Pat Cordova-Goff, Azusa, California, allowed to play on girls' softball team.
++Frank Maloney, ex-boxing manager announces that is transitioning as Kellie.
++Minnesota State High School League, having problems deciding about trans athletes.
++An all-trans football club in Colombia. ++The British Medical Journal publishes an article on the current policies of the IOC, IAAF and FIFA, reporting that several women have recently been coerced into “partial clitoridectomies” and gonadectomies in order to compete.
++The UK Football Association issues new guidelines: Any transgender person wishing to play in their affirmed gender can seek to do so by contacting the FA to obtain clearance.
++4 players in Iran's women's national football team are deemed not to be women – they were intersex or trans women who had not yet had correction surgery. Mandatory sex tests are now required.
++Australian Sports issues Anti-Homophobia & Inclusion Framework For Australian Sports. Comment
2014 Sochia Winter Olympics Russia denied the proposed GLBT Pride House at Sochi Winter Olympics.  There were Olympics-oriented LGBT demonstration in Moscow, St Petersburg and Sochi.  
++ex-MP Vladimir Luxuria was arrested in Sochi during the Olympic Games for demonstrating against Russia's anti-gay laws.


2016 Rio Olympics
++Kellie Maloney completes transition.
++Bruce Jenner, after years of rumors, is involved in a vehicular homicide and starts a highly publicized transition as Caitlyn, and monitizes it as a television program.  
++Matt 'Kroc' Kroczaleski, who holds men's world titles in powerlifting, announced as trans, as Janae Kroc, but will wait until sons complete high school.
++Natalie van Gogh, cyclist, 1º in Trofee Maarten Wynants, , (Helchteren (F)) , Houthalen/Helchteren (Limburg); and 1º in Stage 1 Lotto-Decca Tour, Lotto-Belisol Tour, , (Belgium Tour (F)).
++Chris Moser on the Team USA sprint duathlon men's team for the 2016 Olympics.
++Aydian Dowling, bodybuilder, made the finals of the competition to appear on cover Men's Health magazine.
++cis female footballer Genoveva Anonma in Equatorial Guinea forced to strip naked as sex test after scoring winning goal.
Indian sprinter Dutee Chand successfully challenged the IAAF’s hyperandrogenism regulations
++Revision of Sports, Gender and Trans, in 3 parts by Zagria.
IOC rules there to be no no restrictions on trans men in men's activities;  surgery no longer required for trans women, but must demonstrate that testosterone level below 10 nanomoles per liter for at least one year.
Kristen Worley, trans woman, challenges rule against artificial testosterone as her body does not produce natural female level.
IAAF rules re maximum testosterone levels of 10 nanomoles per liter, apply for all female contestants. This rule is challenged and may lapse in 2017.  Some cis women exceed this amount.
Chris Mosier on US team, and in Nike advert.
Opening ceremony hosted by model Lea T.
Nothando Vilakazi, on South African women's football team, accused on social media of being a man.  

In compiling this timeline, the following were consulted:

16 October 2015

Sports, Gender and Trans–Part 2: the Cold War

Part 1: to 1945
Part 2: the Cold War
Part 3: recent developments

Accusations of gender impersonations became a weapon to be used, mainly by the US, in the Cold War in the 1960s and 1970s.  While the initial suspicions in the 1930s had been about Mark Weston and Zdenek Koubkov, they were long forgotten by the 1950s. The focus was on east European female athletes who were too butch.  The suspicions were taken to be confirmed when Iolanda Balas, Irana Press, Tamara Press, Tatyana Shchelkanova and Maria Itkina all retired after sex testing was brought in.  However if they were intersex women they would have known that they would fail the tests despite being women.

It was a co-incidence that Stella Walasiewicz/Walsh was murdered and thereby outed just before the Moscow Olympics in 1980.  Walsh was described as a man in many newspaper articles, but again was an intersex woman.  By that time 14 years of sex testing had shown that the tests were not actually catching any men in drag.  65 nations refused to compete at Moscow because of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (as we know such boycotts do not happen to all occupiers of Afghanistan).  As sex testing as been brought in as a way to attack the Soviet Union, why was sex testing done at the rump Olympics in Moscow?

Quite a few modern articles refer to  'gender verification' at the Olympics.  Gender is verified by asking for identity papers, which would be passports for all competitors except the home team.  Gender identity is verified by talking to the person.  What is verified by genital examination and DNA analysis is sex.  While only persons of female gender are subject to the testings, the testings are sex tests or sex verifications.

1946 Cis athlete Mildred Didrikson wins US Women’s Amateur Golf.
IAAF introduces a rule requiring female competitors to bring a medical certificate.
1946 Oslo European Championship Clair Bresolles and Léa Caurla. Silver in relay race. Both later became men.  Caurla also 3rd in 200 m.  Bressolles also 3rd in 100 m. 
1947 Mildred Didrikson wins British Ladies Amateur Golf.
1948 London Olympics IOC also requires female competitors to bring a medical certificate.
Held while wartime rationing still in effect. Athletes are given increased rations, the same as those received by dockers and miners, which meant 5,467 calories a day, instead of the normal 2,600.  No new venues are built.
3714 male competitors, 390 female.
Neither Germany is represented, nor is Japan.
1949 Foekje Dillema is named “athlete of the match” at a tournament in London.
Laura Dillon  completes surgeries with Harold Gillies to become Michael.   Wins Sporting Blue for rowing at Trinity College, Dublin.
1950 Foekje Dillema runs 200 m in 24.1 seconds breaking the Dutch national record.  She and other women athletes are sent for a gynecological exam, and Foekje is declared not a woman, and expelled for life from competition.
Mildred Didrikson voted "Greatest Female Athlete of the First Half of the Century".
1951 Roberta Cowell  has surgery with Harold Gillies.
East Germany resents the West German Olympic Committee’s claim to represent both Germanys.
++Richard Raskind Eastern Indoor Male Tennis Champion
1952 Helsinki Olympics Avery Brundage becomes IOC president.
West Germany, but not East Germany competes. Japan returns.
Soviet Union and Israel participate for the first time.
Both Taiwan and China claim to be the Chinese team.  Taiwan withdraws.
1954 Roberta Cowell  publishes her autobiography.
Maria Itkina Gold 200 m at Bern European Championships.
1950s Tsutsumi Taeko,  Japanese athletics star, becomes Kiyotaka, a man.
1955 Maria Itkina 400m world record.
++Richard Raskind captain of Yale University Men's Tennis team.
1956 Mildred Didrikson dies of cancer at age 45.
Maria Itkina world record for 220 m.
++Stella Walasiewicz/Walsh married boxer Neil Olson; they separated after eight weeks, but never divorced, and she continued to use his surname.
1956 Melbourne /Stockholm Olympics The equestrian events are held in Stockholm  because of Australian quarantine regulations.
2938 male competitors, 376 female.
Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland refuse to attend because of the repression of the Hungarian uprising;
Cambodia, Egypt, Iraq and Lebanon refuse because of the Suez war;
The IOC recognises both China and Taiwan.  China withdraws because Taiwan enters.
IOC requires that the two Germanys compete as one team.
Maria Itkina 4th in 4 events.
1957 Heinrich Ratjen, a barman in Hamburg, says that he was Dora Ratjen, who had won medals in 1936 and 1938.
Roberta Cowell wins hill climb.
1958 Maria Itkina Gold 400 m at Stockholm European Championship.
1959 Maria Itkina world record for 440 m.
1960 Rome Olympics 4727 male competitors, 611 female.
Soviet gymnasts win 15 of 16 possible medals in women’s gymnastics.
Irina Press Gold in hurdling for USSR
Tamara Press Gold and Silver in shot-put for USSR
Iolanda Balas Gold in long jump for Romania.
Maria Itkina 4th in 3 events.
Two British female athletes are accused in the press of being men.
The two Germanys still required to compete as one team.
Taiwan but not China participates.
Avery Brundage accepted the word of South African officials that non-white athletes were allowed to compete, but they simply were not good enough.
1962 Sin Kim Dan for North Korea breaks women’s records for 400 m and 800 m.
Maria Itkina Gold 200 m at Belgrade European Championships.
1963 In Moscow, other female sprinters refuse to run against Sin Kim Dan because she looks like a man.
IOC suspends South Africa because of its racial policies.
1964 Mike Duff wins Belgian Motorcycle Grand Prix.
++Richard Raskind consults Harry Benjamin.   
1964 Tokyo Olympics 4473 male competitors, 678 female.
Irina Press Gold in Pentathlon for USSR
Tamara Press Gold and Silver in shot-put for USSR.
Ewa Kłobukowska Gold and Bronze in sprinting for Poland.
Sin Kim Dan does not compete as North Korea is not in IAAF.
Tatyana Shchelkanova Bronze in long jump for USSR
Iolanda Balas Gold in long jump for Romania.
1965 Peter Drouyn wins the Australian Junior Surfing Championship, despite being assaulted the night before.
Ewa Kłobukowska sets a world record for 100 metres with a time of 11.1 seconds.
1966 Budapest European Athletics Championships Visual inspection sex testing of all 243 female athletes by 3 female doctors.
Ewa Kłobukowska passes sex test and wins two gold medals.
Iolanda Balas  attends only as a spectator, and then retires.
A separate East German team recognized for the first time.
1966 Press sisters announce retirement.
Tatyana Shchelkanova retires
Maria Itkina retires
Erika Schinegger world champion women’s downhill ski champion.
British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Jamaica – female athletes were manually examined.
Frank True.  Herald Tribune, 13 September: 17: “If the Commies hadn’t been guilty of substituting men for women in the first place, the new rule by the IAAF wouldn’t have been necessary”.
Fanny Blankers-Koen (who had helped ruin Foekje Dillema’s career in 1950): The Milwaukee Journal, 31 August: 2: “I for one am glad that the girls have to submit to an examination … It was always unfair when a real girl was beaten by one who posed as a female.”
1967 Pan American Games in Winnipeg. Visual inspection sex testing of all female athletes.
Avery Brundage’s IOC bans performance enhancing drugs, and introduces Barr Body sex test.
Joana Nery Brazilian female diving champion.
Peter Drouyn came second in the Australian Surfing Championship.
Mike Duff second in Canadian Motorcycle Grand Prix.
1967 Kiev European Athletics Championship Ewa Kłobukowska 2x Gold in sprinting for Poland. Fails Barr Body sex test.
1968 The Eligibility Code of the IOC Charter is modified to read: “No discrimination is allowed against any country or person on grounds of race, religion or political affiliation.”  No mention of sex or gender.
++Bruce Jenner wins football scholarship to Graceland College. Switches to decathlon because of a knee injury.  
1968 Grenoble Winter Olympics. 947 male competitors, 211 female
1st Olympic sex verification: 50 out 240 female athletes tested.
Erika Schinegger, skier, found to be XY and disqualified.  He accepts this and later transitions to male.
1968 Mexico City Olympics The Tlatelolco massacre  of students and protesters just 10 days before the Olympics opens. Avery Brundage decides to continue with the Games.
4750 male competitors, 780 female.
Barr Body sex test applied using a lottery system.
US blacks and Czechoslovak athletes make political gestures about the repressions in their home countries.
Ewa Kłobukowska fails sex test. Medals rescinded. Banned from competing.   Later marries and becomes a mother.
East Germany finally as a separate team. 
Rhodesian team not allowed into Mexico as per UN Security Council request.
1969 Peter Drouyn equal points with winner of the Australian Surfing Championship.
Peter Wherrett drives in the 1969 Bathurst 1000 race for Mazda.
Mike Duff wins Eastern Canadian Motorcycle Championship.
1970 Peter Drouyn wins Australian Open Surfing title.
Peter Wherrett  drives in the 1969 Bathurst 1000 race for Ford.
++Bruce Jenner came 5th in Drake Relays decathlon.
British Association of Sport and Medicine makes Barr Body testing available to sporting associations.  This also happens in most countries and no further athletes are failed by the test until 1985.
1972 Sapporo Winter Olympics 801 male competitors, 205 female.
All female competitors subjected to a sex test. 
1972 Munich Olympics 6075 male competitors, 1095 female.
960 female competitors subjected to a sex test. Exceptions only if had certificate that were tested at a previous Olympics.
Rhodesia excluded by IOC.
++Bruce Jenner 10th in decathlon.
11 Israeli athletes, 1 police officer and 5 Black Septemberists killed during shootout.
Avery Brundage, at his last Games as IOC President, decided that the Games were to continue after the shootout.
1973 Cis tennis champion Bobby Riggs claims that the female game is inferior and even at 55 he could beat top female player, but is defeated by lesbian Billie Jean King.
++Bruce Jenner graduates from Graceland College with a degree in physical education.
1974 Peter Wherrett drives in the 1969 Bathurst 1000 race for Alfa Romeo.
Bill Smith, jockey and trainer, is outed as female-bodied on entering hospital.  He dies the next year.
++Bruce Jenner US men's decathlon champion, and on Track and Field News cover August issue. 
1975 Peter Wherrett drives in the 1969 Bathurst 1000 race for Alfa Romeo.
Stella Walasiewicz/Walsh inducted into the US Track and Field Hall of Fame.
Renée Richards, amateur tennis player, completes transition.
++Bruce Jenner wins Franch national decathlon championship.  Also set new world record at event in Eugene, Oregon.
++Robin Mathy wins a wrestling scholarship to a junior college.
1976 Peter Wherrett drives in the 1969 Bathurst 1000 race for Alfa Romeo.
1st Gay Rodeo championships.  Includes a Miss Dusty Spurs for drag queens.
Renée Richards banned from US Women’s Open as she will not submit to a chromosome test.  She sues.
1976 Innsbrook Winter Olympics 241 female competitors subjected to a sex test.
1976 Montreal Olympics 4781 male competitors, 1247 female.
All female competitors have their sex verified with the exception of Anne Windsor of the UK equestrian team.   This exception is because her mommy is the Queen of Canada.
++Bruce Jenner dominates games with victories in several events.  He is awarded several US awards.  He then abandons amateur status, and monetizes his fame. (see 2015 in Part III).  
South Africa and Rhodesia banned because of their racist policies.
Taiwan also withdraws because not allowed to call itself Republic of China.
28 African nations boycot the Games because the IOC refuses to bar New Zealand after its rugby tour of South Africa.
It will take 30 years for Montreal to pay off the debt incurred by the Games.
1977 Joana becomes João W. Nery, surgery by Roberto Farina.
Renée Richards wins the right to play without submitting to testing.  She ranks 22nd. She reachs doubles finals in US Open, and wins 35-and-over women’s singles.
1978 16-year-old Chris Dale climbs the Old Man of Stoer without a rope.
1st true female body building contest in Ohio, that is based on musculature rather beauty.
++Frank Maloney working as professional boxing trainer.
1979 Renée Richards wins 25-and-over singles title at US Open.
1980 Stella Walasiewicz/Walsh is shot as a bystander during a robbery in Cleveland.  She is found to be intersex.  The U.S. Olympic Committee announces that there would be no attempt to posthumously retract Walsh's Olympic medals.
++Robin Mathy is a candidate to the 1980 USA Olympic Team in Freestyle Wrestling.
++Bruce Jenner inducted into National Track and Field Hall of Fame. 
1980 Moscow Olympics Coincided with Ramadan. 
4064 male competitors, 1115 female.
995 female competitors subjected to a sex test.  Another 200 had certificates from a previous Olympics.
Of 9292 drug tests, none were positive.
65 nations refuse to compete because of Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.  29 of these countries hold an alternate Liberty Bell Classic Games in Philadelphia. 
Rhodesia returns to the Olympic Games as Zimbabwe.
Ludwig Prokep of the IOCMC claims that some ‘third world’ athletes have failed the sex tests.  This is quickly denied by the IOCMC chair.
Jarmila Kratochvílová Silver in 400m for Czechoslovakia.
1981 Chris Dale makes a bold first ascent in Australia’s Blue Mountains.
First woman accepted into IOC.
1980s ++James Hayes wins over 500 regional and national champion-ships in go-kart, midget, and sprint racing, and  then competes in NASCAR Winston Cup.
Judy Cousins active golfer at Stoke Poges and in the higher ranks of UK women's amateur golf.
1982 1st Gay Games – San Francisco

1350 competitors.
As it had done with the Women’s Games in 1926, the IOC vetoes the use of the word “Olympics”.
++Renée Richards 1st autobiography, Second Serve.  
1983 Helsinki inaugural  Athletic World Championships Jarmila Kratochvílová 2 Golds 400 m 800 m..  Accused of either taking male steroids or being male, although passes Barr Body test.
1984 Kia Sladeski declared Rookie Cowgirl of the Year, but is outed as male-born by folks in her home town. The American Rodeo Association announces that if Kia has completed a sex-change operation, there will be no problem. Either way she will be allowed to keep her rodeo earnings.
1984 Sarajevo Winter Olympics 262 female competitors subjected to a sex test.
China finally participates.
1984 Los Angeles Olympics 15 east European nations refuse to attend in retaliation for the 1980 boycott, and hold alternate Friendship Games.
5263 male competitors, 1566 female. 1610 female competitors subjected to a sex test, 4 fail. 11 fail drug tests. 
China finally participates.  Taiwan also as Chinese Taipei.
1985 Kobe World University Games Maria Jose Martinez Patino, Spanish hurdler, found to be XY AIS.  Struggles for 3 years to persuade IOS to re-instate her.  Given certificate of femininity to exempt her from further testing.
1985 Peter Drouyn introduces surfing in China.
Cis athlete Bev Francis denied a win in female body building contest in Las Vegas because of low score on ‘femininity’.
++Malcolm McGregor, rugby player, cricket commentator, diagnosed as transgender, but drinks and marries instead.   
1986 Madrid European Games Heidi Kreiger, unknowingly on male steroids, Gold in shot-put for DDR.
1986 Gay Games II – San Francisco
3,482 competitors.  Many are HIV+ and will not compete again.
++TV movie Second Serve based on biography by Renée Richards, with Vanessa Redgrave as Renée Richards.
++Bruce Jenner inducted into Olympic Hall of Fame.  
1987 Mike Duff completes transition as Michelle.
Charlotte Wood, finishes third in US Senior Women’s Golf Amateur contest, and reaches semifinals of US Women's Mid-Amateur. She did not reveal that she is trans until questioned.  In reaction the US and many other Golf Associations add ‘female at birth’ requirement for women’s tournaments.
1988 Erik Schinegger,  women’s downhill champion 1968, appears on Austrian television and gives his gold medal to the woman who came second.
IAAF drops Barr Body testing in favour of a manual/visual check by a doctor.
1988 Calgary Winter Olympics 1122 male competitors, 301 female.  296 female competitors subjected to a sex test.
1988 Seoul Olympics

A Spanish professor presents the medical evidence to the Olympic Medical Commission that AIS women such as Maria Jose Martinez Patino,  cannot use the testosterone in their bodies, and have no unfair advantage.
8391 male competitors, 2194 female.
2200 female competitors subjected to a sex test.
Cis Canadian Sprinter Ben Johnson and 2 cis Bulgarian weightlifters win gold but disqualified after drug tests. 
North Korea, after failed negotiations to be a joint host, boycots, and is supported by Albania, Cuba, Madagascar & Seychelles.
Defending cis diving champion, HIV+ Greg Lougania, hits the board and bleeds into the pool, but does not admit he is HIV+.
For the first time, all dressage events are won by women.
++Frank Maloney becomes manager of boxer Lennox Lewis.