This site is the most comprehensive on the web devoted to trans history and biography. Well over 1400 persons worthy of note, both famous and obscure, are discussed in detail, and many more are mentioned in passing.)

There is a detailed Index arranged by vocation, doctor, activist group etc.

In addition to this most articles have one or more labels at the bottom. Click one to go to similar persons. There is a full list of labels at the bottom of the page. There is also a search box at the top left. Enjoy exploring!

18 July 2018

Lynn Edward Benton (1962 - ) cop, convicted of murder

Lynne Irene Benton had been a cop in the small town of Gladstone, south of Portland, Oregon, and nearby towns since 1987. She had become a detective in 1993, the same year that she married a Brazilian man to help him acquire US citizenship (they divorced a few years later). 

By 2008 Benton was a sergeant, the Public Information Officer for the Gladstone force, and taught at the local community college. She had been in a registered domestic relationship with a woman, and was working towards transition, although still presenting as female in both jobs. Benton had changed his name to Lynn Edward Benton, and been able to change his name on his driving license. 

In June 2008 Benton was the local cop summoned when Neil Beagley was found dead. While eventually Neil’s parents, who belonged to the Followers of Christ Church, would be convicted of criminally negligent homicide in denying medical care to their 16-year-old son, initially it was the duty of Benton to announce that the son himself had declined medical attention (Oregon law allows those 14 and older to make such decisions). 

During the Beagley trial in March 2010, Sergeant Benton was not called as a witness, despite being the first cop at the death scene. The lawyers did not want to confuse the jurors with Benton’s personal situation. Police Public Information Officers are often promoted to police chief, but Benton had been passed over when the former chief retired. 

Benton had broken up with his domestic partner of nine years, and had taken up with Debbie Higbee, who owned a beauty parlor in Gladstone. They were married in July 2010. 

Debbie considered that Lynn was becoming angrier and meaner, and attributed it to his taking testosterone. By the following May, Debbie was about to report him for domestic violence, which would have damaged his career. 

Benton offered $2000 to a friend, Susan Campbell, and her son Jason Jaynes, to kill his wife. They shot, beat and then strangled her. Campbell said too much revealing what she knew of the murder, and was arrested. Jaynes was arrested on charges of sex with underage girls and imprisoned for 15 years, where he admitted to another inmate that he had helped his mother do the killing. 

Benton was first placed on administrative leave, but then fired in December when pornography was found on his laptop, and because of the 1993 sham marriage – it was also said that he had not filed charges against Jayne for sex with underage girls. He became a Greyhound Bus driver.

In 2016 Irene Berg, the mother of Debbie Higbee, filed a $900,000 wrongful death lawsuit against Lynn Benton. 

At the trial in 2017, Susan Campbell, whose grand jury testimony had secured the indictment, declined to testify, despite her plea deal for a reduced sentence. Despite this Lynn Edward Benton was found guilty of arranging the murder of his wife in 2011. He was sentenced to life without parole. 

Benton is currently registered with the Oregon Department of Corrections as female and is in Oregon’s only women’s prison at Coffee Creek. (The facility also processes all new inmates, male and female. There are usually about 400 men at the facility. There are also six trans inmates there.)


RapSheets 

___________


How far transitioned was Benton at the time of the 2010 marriage or the murder?   Stauth's book and the newspaper articles are not in agreement.  Certainly their is no mention of a doctor or clinic facilitating  transition, although he obviously has been taking male hormones.

Campbell and Jaynes apparently never did get the $2,000.





Cameron Stauth explains faith-healing homicide

14 July 2018

Deena Kaye Rose (1943 - ) musician

Dick Feller was born and raised in Missouri. At 12 he had his first guitar, and at 15 played with a local band.

In 1964 he tried his luck in the Los Angeles music scene.

In 1966 he moved to Nashville: he toured with The Statesiders, did session work and wrote songs. Johnny Cash had a hit with Feller’s "Any Old Wind That Blows" in 1972; Jerry Reed recorded "The Lady is a Woman" and "One Sweet Reason". "Lord, Mr. Ford" – the last was a number-one hit in 1973. Feller’s first album came out some months later.

He spent time at the Chelsea Hotel in New York in the mid-1970s.

Feller and Jerry Reed did the music for the film Smokey and the Bandit, 1977. John Denver had a hit with Feller’s "Some Days Are Diamonds (Some Days Are Stone)".

Feller has 400 published songs, received 10 BMI Music Awards for most performed songs of various years including two “Million-air” awards for songs that have played over a million times in broadcast play in North America alone, and has lectured at several universities.

In the 2010s, Feller relocated to Las Vegas, transitioned at the age of 70 and became Deena Kaye Rose, and published her autobiography.


*not Deena Rose the preacher

Albums (under the name Dick Feller)

Dick Feller Wrote, 1973
No Word on me, 1974
Some Days Are Diamonds, 1975
Audiograph Alive, 1982
Centaur of Attention, 2001.

www.deenakayerose.com    EN.Wikipedia   IMDB    Alchetron





12 July 2018

Camilla Rose Waters (1957 - ) musician, clown, social worker

Steve John Kern was born in Santa Rosa, California, and raised the youngest in a family of six kids, all of whom played musical instruments. Steve sang, and learned to play trumpet, trombone, French Horn, Baritone and tuba. From 7th grade he was teaching music.

He did a degree in Social Work and Music Therapy, and developed programs for those with physical and mental disabilities, and a 135-agency coalition to provide housing and food for the homeless. He created a company to provide musicians and other entertainers to corporate clients and to schools. He also became certified as a professional clown. He was for a while the Event Manager at the San Jose Convention Center. Discovering that the surrounding school districts had lacked music programs for 20 years, he set up programs that reached 1,500 students weekly.

He had been born lacking peripheral vision. This meant being unable to view the sheet music and the conductor at the same time. He compensated by memorizing the music. While he wore glasses from the 8th grade, it was not until age 30 that the problem was correctly identified.

Kern was often taken for the singer John Denver. After Denver’s death in a airplane crash in October 1997, Kern began singing in Denver’s style, and audiences were amazed at the physical as well as musical likeness, and in a 24-month period he ‘accidentally’ met a dozen people who had links with Denver.

In 2009, at the age of 52, Kern started transition, and became Camilla Rose Waters.


In 2012, in Flagstaff, Arizona, while out shopping, Camilla collapsed and woke up in hospital. Her lack of sight was now almost complete. She decided to move to Portland, Oregon for access to the Casey Eye Clinic, the city’s mass transit system and its strong music scene.

She was welcomed by the Portland Folk Music Society and invited to be one of the representatives of the blind community. She is the first trans person in the history of the Western Music Association. She was chosen by the Portland Folk Music Society as their featured artist for November and December 2013, however the Oregonian Newspaper refused to do a story on her, or to review her music.

Her current album is Songs from the Prairie.

*Not the musician and pastor, also called Steve Kern; nor the Steve Kern, son of Artie Shaw and grandson of songwriter Jerome Kern.
  • Paul Von Ward. The Soul Genome: Science and Reincarnation. Fenestra Books, 2008: 9, 85, 127, 175-6, 190, 200-2.
  • Ray Ashmun. “An Interview with Camilla Rose”. Portland Folk Music Society, August 11, 2013. Online.
SoundCloud     http://camillaroselive.com     TransitionRadio

---------------------


The book by Paul Von Ward proposes that Steve Kern and John Denver are a split soul.


Make of that what you will.

The book was published in 2008, just before Camilla Rose transitioned. If it had been published a few years later, what would Von Ward have proposed: that John Denver, had he survived, also would have eventually transitioned?

05 July 2018

Transgender Surgery Addendum – July 2018


The full tale is still not told.   These items will be added to the full timeline, and are published here so that they will be noticed.

Netherlands, Arnheim Municipal Hospital 1959 – 

plastic surgeon S.T. Woudstra did a phalloplasty for a trans man. This was published in the Dutch Journal of Medicine resulting in letters of protest and questions in Parliament. Woudstra never did a second such surgery.

Japan. Nippon Medical School Hospital 1950-1. 

Akiko Nagai had an orchiectomy, a penectomy and breast augmentation.

Japan Tokyo - 1964. 

Gynecologist Taro Kono performed sex change operations on three trans women at a Tokyo clinic — and was arrested the following year and charged with violations of the Eugenics and Motherhood Protection Act of 1948, as  well as an  unrelated  violation of the Controlled  Substances  Act.  In 1969 he was found guilty of all charges , sentenced to two years and fined Ɏ400,000. The case attached a stigma to transsexualism and made it taboo for medical professionals for many years to provide adequate care or even information. This lasted until the late 1990s.

Billings & Urban

A history of transgender surgery that I did not consult for my transgender surgery timeline was,
  • Dwight B. Billings and Thomas Urban. “The Socio-Medical Construction of Transsexualism: An Interpretation and Critique”. Social Problems, 29, 3, Feb., 1982: 266-282.
This was reprinted in In Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds), Blending Genders: Social Aspects of Cross-Dressing and Sex-Changing, Routledge 1996: 99-117, and various other places. It is much cited.

Here is the abstract:
“This article examines transexualism and its treatment by sex-reassignment surgery. Physicians have drawn upon their previous experience with hermaphrodites and the psychological benefits of elective surgery to legitimate sex-change surgery for what they view as a distinct patient population, transexuals. We demonstrate that transexualism is a socially constructed reality which only exists in and through medical practice. Furthermore, we contend that sex-change surgery reflects and extends late-capitalist logics of reification and commodification, while simultaneously reaffirming traditional male and female gender roles.”
The paper closes with:
“But rather than support contemporary movements aimed at reorganising gender and parenting roles and repudiating the either/or logic of gender development, sex-change proponents support sex-reassignment surgery. By substituting medical terminology for political discourse, the medical profession has indirectly tamed and transformed a potential wildcat strike at the gender factory”.
This was published only three years after Raymond’s The Transsexual Empire, and agrees with it that transsexuals would not exist without pushy profit-oriented doctors.  !!

Billings & Urban are not incorrect in what they write, although they twist the interpretation as indicated. They are extremely US-centric and have no interest at all in the work done by Gillies, Fogh-Andersen, Burou, Randel, Steiner or Ratnam. What facts they do have that are not in my timeline are those relating to the opposition by psychiatrists. That is another tale. I am first concentrating on the surgeons who made transgender surgery what it is.

However there are two items in their footnotes which are not mentioned anywhere else.

1) “Thomas Urban was a participant observer for three years (1978–80) in a sex-change clinic”.

But they do not say which one or otherwise elaborate. Did he leave, as did Grant Williams from the Charing Cross Clinic, because he disagreed with the program? This is an unknown.

2) Footnote 8 reads:

“Other university hospitals, such as the University of Minnesota’s, began surgical treatment at roughly the same time but avoided public disclosure. In addition, a few operations were secretly performed in the 1950s at the University of California at San Francisco. We have learned that Cook County Hospital in Chicago was performing sex-change operations as early as 1947, predating Jorgensen’s famous European surgery by five years.”

We know that Elmer Belt (not mentioned at all in Billings & Urban) was doing such operations at the University of California at Los Angeles in the 1950s. Do they have the wrong city, or is this something lost to history?  Louise Lawrence worked with Alfred Kinsey and Harry Benjamin in San Francisco in the 1950s.   If these surgeries happened there is strange that neither Lawrence nor Benjamin knew about them.  The Langley Porter Clinic, while admitting that psychotherapy did not work, generally would not recommend surgery, although it is said that they did arrange surgery in a couple of cases.  Dr Frank Hinman, urologist, author of  “Advisability of Surgical Reversal of Sex in Female Pseudohermaphroditism”, 1951, was brought in in 1953 to save Caren Ecker after an auto-orchiectomy, which was felt to require a penectomy. 


I cannot find any account of transgender surgery at Cook County Hospital in 1947. Orion Stuteville who did transgender surgery at Cook County and Northwestern University Medical School twenty years later was already a surgeon there, but in the dental school. Was it he who did the transgender surgery, or someone else?   Harry Benjamin had requested Max Thorek, a renowned surgeon in Chicago to do an operation, but, after consulting his lawyer, he declined. Again what Billings and Urban are referring to seems to be lost to history.

02 July 2018

Roberta Perkins (1940 – 2018) sociologist, activist

Perkins did a dissertation on transvestism and transsexuality at Macquarie University in Sydney in 1981 – one the very first by an openly trans woman.

She was also one of the members of the newly founded Australian Transsexual Association. She approached Rev. Bill Crews of the Wayside Chapel Crisis Centre to ask for a regular meeting place. Weekly support meetings were arranged.

Roberta’s book The Drag Queen Scene: Transsexuals in Kings Cross, a study of 146 lives based on her dissertation came out in 1983. This was read by Frank Walker, New South Wales Labor Assembly person and at that time Minister for Youth and Community Services.

In July, he invited her to come in and talk, which led to a grant of $80,000 which was used to open a centre, Tiresias House, at 75 Morgan Street, Petersham, Sydney – its 12 bed spaces were filled immediately, and had to be converted to 16 by using the lounge as a bedroom. In December that year, Walker officially opened the centre.

Within a few years, the centre has expanded to four houses, one of which was registered as a halfway house for ex-convicts on parole. A residential nurse and a community worker were employed. Six years later it was renamed the Gender Centre.

Perkins left Tiresias House in 1985, and went on to write and subsequently publish books and articles in peer-reviewed journals on trans women and sex workers. She was involved in the struggle for decriminalization of sex work in New South Wales and Australia.

Roberta died aged 78.
Publications by Roberta Perkins:
  • The Third Sex and Sanctified Persons: A Cross-Cultural Survey, Comparison and Analysis of Transvestism and Transsexuality. Macquarie University BA Hons Thesis 1981.
  • The Drag Queen Scene: Transsexuals in Kings Cross. George Allen & Unwin, 1983.
  • With Nikki Searant & Linda Tyne. Transsexualism: An Overview : Understanding the Transsexual.: Collective of Australian Transsexuals, Australian Transsexual Association, 1983.
  • With Garry Bennett. Being a Prostitute: Prostitute Women and Prostitute Men. Allen & Unwin, 1985.
  • A History, Manifesto, and a Report on the Proposed Welfare Services of the Australian Prostitutes' Collective. The Collective, 1985.
  • Female Prostitutes in Visible Prostitution in Inner-City Sydney. The author, 1985.
  • Female Prostitution in Sydney an Overview: An Information Document on Female Prostitution and Prostitute Women of Sydney. Australian Prostitutes Collective (N.S.W.), 1985.
  • "Working Girls": Normality and Diversity Among Female Prostitutes in Sydney. Macquarie University MA Hons Thesis, 1988.
  • Interviewed by Phil Jarratt. "The working girl's friend. -Interview with Roberta Perkins, founder of the Australian Prostitutes Collective". Bulletin (Sydney). 140-141,143-144, 13 September 1988.
  • "Wicked Women Or Working Girls: The Prostitute on the Silver Screen". Media Information Australia, 51, 1989: 28-34.
  • "Working Girls in ‘Wowserville’: Prostitute Women in Sydney Since 1945". In Richard Kennedy. Australian Welfare: Historical Sociology. Macmillan, 1989: 362-389.
  • Working Girls: Prostitutes, Their Life and Social Control. Australian Inst. of Criminology, 1991.
  • With A. Griffin, & J. Jakobsen. Transgender Lifestyles and HIV/AIDS Risk. University of New South Wales, 1994.
  • With G. Prestage, R. Sharp & Frances Lovejoy. Sex Work, Sex Workers in Australia. University of New South Wales Press, 1994.
  • With Frances Lovejoy. "Healthy and Unhealthy Life Styles of Female Brothel Workers and Call Girls (Private Sex Workers) in Sydney". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 20, 5, 1996: 512-6.
  • “The Drag Queen Scene: Transsexuals in Kings Cross". In Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds). Blending Genders: Social Aspects of Cross-Dressing and Sex-Changing. Routledge 1996: 53-62.
  • With Frances Lovejoy. Call Girls: Private Sex Workers in Australia. University of Western Australia Press, 2007.
About Roberta Perkins
  • Katherine Cummings. “Vale Roberta Perkins (1940-2018)” Gender Centre, 2018. Online.
  • “'Trailblazer' to be remembered in Sydney”. Australian Associated Press, 28 June 2018. Online.

https://gendercentre.org.au/about-us/our-history

_______________

It is a shame that Roberta's books are so hard to find.

She was a pioneer in what we now accept as normal, that trans people write about trans people, but until the 1980s this was regarded as heretical, and writings by trans persons were dismissed simply because the person was trans.


29 June 2018

Charles Wolf (? – 1965) sex-change surgeon

Charles Wolf was a prominent surgeon in La Chaux-de-Fonds, the famed watch-making town in the canton of Neuchâtel, in French-speaking Switzerland.

In 1941 he received a referral from a Geneva psychiatrist who had treated Arlette Leber with psychotherapy supplemented with ovarian hormones, but without success. Leber, who had read of earlier surgical sex changes, threatened suicide if not so changed. Dr Wolf was struck by Leber’s feminine contour of the body and her developed breasts. He agreed to operate. He did an orchiectomy in October 1941, a penectomy in January 1942 and a vaginoplasty in October 1942. The method was that of Dr WF Sneguireff of Paris who had created a vagina for a cis woman in 1898 using a segment of her rectum – Wolf used a segment of Leber’s intestine. The operation did not go well and Leber had to spend five weeks in hospital and then another five weeks under close medical supervision at home. In 1944 a Cantonal Court approved her petition for a change of civic status to female.

Wolf’s next trans patient is known only as S. S., born 1908, despite a strong yearning to be female from an early age had married, and they had a son in 1935. In 1947 S. did an auto-penectomy with an axe, and a summoned surgeon did an emergency completion. In 1951, Dr Wolf put finishing touches to the plastic procedures. However vaginoplasty was not deemed to be necessary. Despite being married and a father, S. was granted a change of civic status in 1951.

J. is the name given to an Italian tailor of female clothing who had moved to Switzerland, because they knew ‘how to do that sort of thing’. While living in Geneva, he heard of the work of Dr Wolf, and rushed to La Chaux-de-Fonds and secured an appointment. J. like Leber threatened suicide if denied surgery. Despite financial problems (J. being Italian was not financed by the Swiss state), an orchiectomy and a penectomy had been done by July 1951. J. continued to pester Wolf and his colleagues until they agreed to do a vaginoplasty, which was done in October 1953. However the sutures did not hold properly and J. was left with a small unhealed area that was still present in January 1956.

Dr Wolf comments in his appendix to de Savitsch’s book:
“A good prognosis can only be made in the case of those true transvestites whose sexual appetite is very slight, and whose modest ambitions may save them from any lack of affective satisfaction. Such patients will be happy after the operation, because their occupations and social environment will at last be in harmony with their nature. The patient who dreams of leading a woman’s life after undergoing the operation is likely to regret his decision bitterly. Only those who propose to become old maids can submit to the operation without fear of the consequences.” …
“Once it has been decided that there is a proper case for a change of sex and civic status, castration and amputation of the penis are necessary and, in my opinion, sufficient. Plastic surgery to provide an artificial vagina is a useless luxury: the operation involves considerable risk; if it is to remain serviceable in spite of the natural tendency for the tissues to retract, it will require constant care; even then will it ever be used? If used, it will certainly give more pain than pleasure. For the man who has been turned into a woman, the artificial vagina will be a purely mental satisfaction.”
  • Eugene de Savitsch. Homosexuality, Transvestism and Change of Sex. Springfield Ill: Charles C. Thomas 1958: 60-71, 80, 83, 113-118.
______

In my timeline of transgender surgery, I stated that Colin Markland at Minnesota Medical School was the first surgeon to use an intestinal segment in creating a vagina for a trans woman. This was wrong in that he was pre-dated by Charles Wolf. The timeline has been corrected.

In the first quote from Wolf he says of a trans woman, "his decision".  This would be a translation from the French "sa décision" which can be translated as his or her decision.   However most doctors in the 1950s did use male pronouns for trans women.

27 June 2018

Arlette-Irène Leber (1912 - ?) first Swiss gender surgery

Original version: October 2009.

Arnold-Lèon Leber was Swiss although born in Germany. Leber’s father disappeared during the Great War, and was replaced by a step-father given to drunkenness who in turn disappeared when Leber was 11.

By then Leber was already praying, to God and to the fairies, to be turned into a girl.

Leber completed high school and became a clothing salesman (a position that required an apprenticeship). In 1932 Leber was called up to do military service and was pleased to be assigned to be a nurse. However rheumatic fever brought this to an end, and Leber returned to selling women’s clothing. This facilitated cross-dressing although it remained very private.

With the depression Leber was no longer able to earn enough, and was arrested 22 times for non-payment of debts and petty larceny. After release he worked for some time in Germany. On return he was arrested as a spy and served 18 months in gaol.

After unsatisfactory sexual affairs with both men and woman, Leber was admitted to a psychiatric clinic in Berne. He threatened suicide if they did not turn him into a woman. He had read about such changes in a Prague newspaper – he read up on the scientific literature of the day about sex changes. The doctors regarded him as a morally defective transvestite, and were considering committing him to an institution. Warned of this he escaped to Geneva.

A psychiatrist there treated Leber with psychotherapy supplemented with ovarian hormones, but without success. In 1941, he referred the patient to Dr Charles Wolf, the noted surgeon in La Chaux-de-Fonds. Leber threatened suicide if not changed into a woman. Dr Wolf was struck by Leber’s feminine contour of the body and her developed breasts. He agreed to operate. He did an orchiectomy in October 1941, a penectomy in January 1942 and a vaginoplasty in October 1942. The method was a variation on that of Dr WF Sneguireff of Paris who had created a vagina for a cis woman in 1898 using a segment of her rectum – Wolf used a segment of Leber’s intestine. The last operation did not go well and Leber had to spend five weeks in hospital and then another five weeks under close medical supervision at home.

Leber, now using the name Arlette-Irène, quickly applied to the legal authorities that she be able to call herself a woman, and to dress so. Her psychiatrist formally supported this request. The court appointed two experts to study and to decide the matter. They were Dr Jean Clerc, Professor of Legal Medicine at the University of Neuchâtel, and Dr Otto Riggenbach, Psychiatric Consultant to the Physician-in-Chief of the Swiss Army. They took two years. They considered the precedent of Margrith Businger who was able to change her civic status in 1931 after only an orchiectomy.

Clerc described Leber as a constitutional invert. As surgical changes were complete, the bearing of a masculine name was likely to be a source of continual trouble and a change of civic status was justified.

Riggenbach found that Leber was a psychopathic personality with little moral sense, hysterical and masochistic tendencies, but would not have pursued a change of sex unless a powerful biological urge had driven him to do so. However he seemed much happier and calmer since assuming the role of a woman. Riggenbach said that Leber should be permitted to change civic status, but be kept under constant supervision and be forbidden to marry.

The Cantonal Court decided that the issue was medical and not legal. By a majority of one, Leber’s request was granted (despite the refusal of the judge to sign the verdict). Riggenbach’s constraints were not imposed. Leber’s civic status was changed to female, she was removed from the voters’ roll (Swiss women did not get the vote until 1971), and she got a partial tax refund.

For two years she was unemployed, but then found a full-time job in Biel/Bienne.

In 1956, Riggenbach evaluated her and concluded: ‘The operation, on the one part, combined with the permission of the authorities to change her civic status, on the other, has turned an unstable and unhappy individual into a useful and contented member of society’.

 It is not known what happened to Mme Leber after that.

  • Eugene de Savitsch. Homosexuality, Transvestism and Change of Sex. Springfield Ill: Charles C. Thomas 1958: Chp 10, 11.
  • Katrina C Rose. “Desperately Seeking Arlette (and the Precedent She Set)”. Christielee.net. Online.
  • Annette Runte. Biographische Operationen: Diskurse der Transsexualität. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 1996: 528-9, 569, 573, 579. 

23 June 2018

Diana Sacayán (1975 – 2015) activist.

Amancay Diana Sacayán, one of 16 siblings of aboriginal Diaguita descent, was born in Tucumán in northwest Argentina at a time of a state emergency in the province declared by President Isabel Perón.

Later the family moved to Gregorio de Laferrère, a suburb of Buenos Aires.

Diana came out as trans at age 17. She was arrested several times for being herself and in jail joined the Partido Comunista de la Argentina. In 2011 she left the Party and founded the Movimiento Antidiscriminatorio de Liberación (MAL) which was particularly concerned with human rights for LGBTI persons.

She worked with the health services of La Matanza Partido (which contains Gregorio de Laferrère) so that trans persons could access health care. She also made trans persons, aboriginals and the prison population aware of their rights – in particular she pushed for the state to recognize a person’s declared gender identity. She also got Buenos Aires to introduce a work quota whereby one percent of jobs in public administration are reserved for trans persons. She worked with other persons to lobby the Argentine state, a process that led to the Ley de Identidad de Genero in 2012.

Sacayán was the first trans activist to get a female ID card, and was given it personally by President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner.

In 2012 she ran for the post of Ombudsman on behalf of the La Matanza party, and was one of three finalists – the first trans person in Argentina to achieve this level of recognition. In 2014 she was elected Trans Alternate Secretary of the ILGA Council at its World Conference in Mexico City.

In October 2015 she was brutally stabbed to death in her apartment while bound hand and foot, and gagged.

This created an outcry among human rights and LGBTI activists. The Comisión de Familiares y Compañeros de Justicia por Diana Sacayán- Basta de Travesticidio was created and the word
‘Travesticidio’ put into common use. In May 2016 the Amancay Festival was held in La Matanza in her memory, and 28 June 2016 the First National March against Transvesticidio was held in Buenos Aires.

Gabriel David Marino was arrested and charged with the murder of Diana Sacayán. He was convicted of transvesticidio "aggravated homicide due to gender violence and hatred of gender identity" - first person to be sentenced under a legal provision specifically targeting anti-transgender crimes.

Police believe there may have been a second person involved in the murder, but he has never been identified.

Marino was sentenced to life imprisonment in June 2018.
  • “Argentina transgender killings spark outcry”. BBC News, 15 October 2015. Online.
  • Frances Jenner. “Man who killed Diana Sacayán receives a life sentence for ‘travesticidio’ for the first time in Argentine history”. Argentina Reports, Jun 18, 2016. Online.
  • Nick Duffy. “Man who murdered Argentina transgender activist Diana Sacayán jailed for life on hate crime charge”. Pink News, 19th June 2018. Online.

ES.Wikipedia        EN.Wikipedia



20 June 2018

La Bella Otero (187?–?) performer, sex worker

Luis D, from Madrid, sometimes said that he became homosexual after being seduced by a neighbour. On arrival in Buenos Aires at the end of the 19th century, she took the name La Bella Otero after the celebrated Spanish actor-dancer.

However in the life history that she wrote for Dr Francisco de Veyga she said that she always considered herself a woman, and had worn female clothing all her life. She had married a man and borne two children before being widowed. De Veyga commented:
“Only exceptionally does he wear male garb, preferring feminine accoutrements, which he wears with ease and even elegance. He leaves his house seldom and generally in a carriage, to avoid tiresome street incidents that would be impossible to evade, given the relative notoriety among the aficionados of the genre”.
Her account was published by de Veyga separately from that of Aurora and Rosita. He commented that Otero did not
“hide very well his desire to figure as a case history in the book on sexual inversion that we are preparing”.

  • Francisco de Veyga, "La inversion adquirida-Tipo profesional:' Archivos de Psiquiatria y Criminologia, II, 1903: 493-4.
  • Francisco de Veyga, "La inversion sexual congenita:' Archivos de Psiquiatria y Criminologia, I, 1902.
  • Jorge Salessi. “The Argentine Dissemination of Homosexuality, 1890-1914”. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 4, 3, Jan 1994: 356-8, 361.
  • Jorge Salessi & Patrick O’Conner. “For Carnival, Clinic and Camera: Argentina’s Turn of the Century Drag Culture Performs ‘Woman’”. In Diana Taylor & Juan Villegas Morales (eds). Negotiating Performance: Gender, Sexuality, and Theatricality in Latin/O America.Duke University Press, 1994: 266-8.
  • María Belén Ciancio & Alejandra Gabriele. “El archivo positivista como dispositivo visual-verbal. Fotografía, feminidad anómala y fabulación”. Mora (Buenos Aires), 18,1, ene/jul 2012. Online.

17 June 2018

Thomas de Croismare (1779-1847) soldier, book-keeper, civil servant, musician

Thomas de Croismare was a lieutenant with Napoleon’s army at the Battle of Borodino 1812 outside Moscow (Bataille de la Moskova) the deadliest day of the Napoleonic Wars.

He was also present when Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo 1815. de Croismare was wounded in the shoulder and the mouth.

With the creation of Belgium in 1830, de Croismare became a book-keeper, and later an employee at the Ministry of Finance, where he rose to a post of considerable trust.

He was noted for his playing of the violoncello, and for the attentions that he paid to women, although he never did marry.

He died at the age of 68. This resulted in an astonishment in that, when his body was being washed prior to interment, it was discovered that it was of the female type.

  • “Life-Time Disguise of Sex” various newspapers May 1847. Reprinted in William Arthur. The Antiquarian and General Review, Vol 3, 1847: 264 Online; reprinted in The Western Literary Messenger, 1847: 354 Online; reprinted in the Port Tobacco Times, 13 May 1847 Online;  

15 June 2018

Peter Farrer (1926 - 2017) tax inspector, trans historian

Peter Farrer’s father was a Church of England vicar and schoolmaster who lived in various parishes, and during the Second World War had a parish in the Isle of Man, where Peter and his twin sister attended the independent King William’s College. Peter was head of the cadet force and captain of the rugby team. It was at this time that he found that he was interested in wearing female clothing.

He did his national service 1946-9 in the Army and was posted to Trieste. He then went to Oxford University where he read Philosophy, Politics and Economics.

In 1952 Peter married his dance teacher, Joan – his father officiated. He also became a tax inspector, where he remained until retirement. Peter and Joan had one son.

From 1964-6 they were in Nairobi where Peter helped set up an Inland Revenue system for the newly independent Kenya. In 1968 he was posted to Formby outside Liverpool, where he stayed. He was promoted to Senior Inspector and dealt with the tax affairs of major Liverpool companies.

His wife knew of his cross-dressing and research thereof, and permitted it only when she was elsewhere. Unfortunately Joan was afflicted with early-onset Alzheimer’s and died in the 1970s.

Peter began building a collection of dresses, but apparently never cross-dressed outside his home. In his lunch breaks he visited Liverpool museums to study Victorian dresses and corsetry. He joined the Costume Society and the Northern Society of Costume and Textiles. Through the former he met his second wife, Anne Brogden, a lecturer in art and fashion. They married in 1982 and bought a house in Garston, south Liverpool, where they created an outstanding fashion library that included complete runs of Vogue, Queen, The Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine and other fashion magazines.

Peter had a particular interest in dresses made of taffeta. He had such dresses especially made by the Brighton-based dressmaker Sandi Steyning, owner of the Kentucky Woman Clothing Company. He was also a collector and editor of primarily letters to newspapers re enforced cross-dressing of young boys, mainly in England, and during the early 20th century, but also regular cross-dressing.

In 1985 Peter contacted The Glad Rag, the publication of The Transvestite/ Transsexual Support Group run by Yvonne Sinclair and became a contributor, mainly of historical letters.

In 1987 Farrer published a 44-page pamphlet Men in Petticoats: A Selection of Letters from Victorian Newspapers. It features letters and photographs from 19th-century publications such as The Family Doctor, Modern Society and Society. Central attention is devoted to Fanny and Stella and their trial in 1870, but there is also discussion of the joys of tight-lacing. The pamphlet and the books that followed were self-published under the publisher name of Karn Publications Garston: Karn was Peter’s mother’s maiden name.

After retirement he was able to visit major libraries in London and Oxford, Richard Ekins’ Transgender Archive in Ulster and the Kinsey Institute in Indiana.

In 1992 Farrer published In Female Disguise: An Anthology of English and American Short Stories
and Literary Passages, which featured prose stories from 1475 to 1900 by authors such as Walter Scott, Conan Doyle, Rudyard Kipling etc. but not poetry or drama (so nothing by Shakespeare).

Men in Petticoats was followed by The Regime of the Stay-Lace, which paid more attention to ‘petticoat punishment’ (forced femininity) in Victorian newspapers that the first booklet, and also Borrowed Plumes, which found much cross-dressing content in newspapers 1989-1912 (some of which had already been published in Glad Rag).

Richard Ekins, in both his books, thanks Farrer for his contributions. Farrer contributed two papers to Blending Genders, 1996 (ed Richard Ekins and Dave King), one on cross-dressing in literature and the other on the newspapers that he was analysing in his books with examples of the correspondence from readers.

Farrer had been doing an MA in Victorian literature at the University of Liverpool on ‘Women in Control’ and was awarded his degree in 1996.

In 1997-8 Farrer published in two volumes, Confidential Correspondence on Cross Dressing, 1911-1920 taken from the publications New Photo Fun, New Fun, Fun, Bits of Fun – and referring to the mentions in James Joyce’s Ulysses. Some of the letters had been published in Glad Rag.

There remained other contributions to Glad Rag that did not fit in Borrowed Plumes or Confidential Correspondence, and that was published as My First Party Frock in 1997.

Through a chance reading of an article in a 1902 magazine, Farrer had become aware of Maurice Pollack (1885-1918), son of Polish immigrants in Birmingham, who became an accomplished child female impersonator but enlisted during the war and died of wounds in the latter stages of the Palestine campaign. Peter was able to reconstruct Pollack’s life with the help of his family, and published the research as a book.

He then turned his attention to London Life 1923-41, the major publication between the wars that paid
attention to cross-dressing and similar topics and printed readers’ letters on such. This research was published in two volumes, 2000 and 2006.

Farrer also gave papers at the Gendys conferences. In 2002 his Gendys paper was a response to Gary Kates’ Monsieur d'Eon is a Woman, 1995, the first book based on the d’Eon papers in the Brotherton Collection at Leeds University. Farrer challenges Kates’ conclusion that d’Eon did not wear female clothes until ordered to do so by the French king.

In 2004 his Gendys paper was on the Louise Lawrence Collection at the Kinsey Archive. In this he gives a summary of Bessie/William Beck and his wife. William had been subjected to petticoat punishment in the 1920s, found that he liked female clothing and as an adult married a dominant woman who continued his forced femininity. While one does assume that such stories are fiction, Peter investigated further and found letters by Bessie and wife to Transvestia (despite Virginia Prince’s noted aversion to fetishism), and to Toronto’s Justice Weekly.

In 2006 Farrer wrote a summary of his work for Transgender Tapestry. He had already been attending to the Toronto publication Justice Weekly, 1956-1972, and its continuation of the tradition of London Life, and published a book on in in 2011.

Farrer had obtained Bessie’s autobiography, edited it and published it in 2012. That was his last book.

Peter’s second wife, Anne, died in 2014.

In 2015 the Liverpool Homotopia festival featured Transformation: One Man’s Cross Dressing Wardrobe, based on Peter’s life-time collection, and with the books and magazines, they have become a permanent exhibition at the National Museums Liverpool.

Peter died at age 90.

* Not the member of the board at Scottish Water; nor the visual-effects film person; not the chartered surveyor;

by Peter Farrer: (all published by Karn Publications Garston except where otherwise stated)
  • Men in Petticoats: A Selection of Letters from Victorian Newspapers.1987.
  • In Female Disguise: An Anthology of English and American Short Stories and Literary Passages. 1992.
  • Borrowed Plumes: Letters from Edwardian Newspapers on Male Cross Dressing. 1994.
  • The Regime of the Stay-Lace: A Further Selection of Letters from Victorian Newspapers. 1995.
  • “Men in Petticoats: the letters of ‘Grateful’, ‘A Lover of Lingerie’ and ‘Victim of Stays’ to reveal the extent of Cross-dressing in Victorian England”. Antique International, 25, Autumn 1995: 44-9.
  • “In Female Attire: Male Experiences of Cross-Dressing – Some Historical Fragments” and “120 Years of Male Cross-Dressing and Sex-Changing in English and American Literature”. In Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds). Blending Genders: Social Aspects of Cross-Dressing and Sex-Changing. Routledge 1996.
  • Women in Control. MA thesis in Victorian Literature, The University of Liverpool, 1996.
  • “Letters on Cross Dressing”. Gendys Conference. 1996. Online.
  • Confidential Correspondence on Cross Dressing, 1911-1915. 1997.
  • “Boy Ballerinas and Swinging Skirts”. TV Scene, 23, April 1997: 36-8.
  • Confidential Correspondence on Cross Dressing Part II, 1916-1920. 1998.
  • With Christine-Jane Wilson. My First Party Frock: And Other Contributions to The Glad Rag, 1985 to 1991. 1997.
  • The Life of Maurice Pollack, 1885-1918: A Birmingham Actor. 1998.
  • Tight Lacing: A Bibliography of Articles and Letters Concerning Stays and Corsets for Men and Women:, 1999.
  • Cross Dressing between the Wars: Selections from London Life, 1923-1933. 2000.
  • 'D'Eon De Beaumont: New Facts, Or Fiction?', Gendys 2002 Conference, 2002. Online.
  • “The Louise Lawrence Collection”. Gendys Conference, 2004. Online.
  • Cross Dressing between the Wars: Selections from London Life, Part II 1934-1941. 2006.
  • “Petticoat Punishment in Erotic Literature: Part One: Before 'Gynecocracy'“. Petticoat Discipline Quarterly, March 2006. Online.
  • “Letters on Crossdressing, 1867-1920”. Transgender Tapestry, 110, Fall 2006: 48-55. Online.
  • “Letters on Crossdressing, 1867-1920, Part Two”. Transgender Tapestry, 111, Winter 2006/7: 46-8. Online.
  • Cross Dressing Since the War: Selections from Justice Weekly 1955-1972. 2011.
  • William Edward Beck (ed Peter Farrer). Happenings: The Story of Bessie. 2012.
about Peter Farrer:
  • Richard Ekins. “The work of Peter Farrer: women’s clothes and cross-dressing with a provisional list of novels in which mention of cross-dressing is made, 1901–1951”. Archive News: Bulletin of the Trans-Gender Archive 3(1), 1992: :3–20.
  • Richard Ekins. “Building a Transgender Archive”. Cross-Talk, 47, September 1993: 19-22.
  • Richard Ekins. Male Femaling: A grounded theory approach to cross-dressing and sex changing. Routledge, 1997: 7, 40, 45.
  • Richard Ekins & Dave King. The Transgender Phenomenon. Sage Publications, 2006: xv, 61, 106.
  • “Revealed: The secret frills of the Liverpool taxman”. Confidentials, 12 October 2015. Online.
  • “Grayson Perry Outdone: Transformation Exhibits Peter Farrer’s Cross Dressing Wardrobe”. Artlyst, 16 October 2015. Online.
  • “Obituary: Peter Farrer” The Sunday Times, April 22 2017. Online.
  • Anthea Jarvis. “Obituary: Peter Jarvis”. Costume: The Journal of the Costume Society, 51, 2, 2017. Online.
  • “Obituary: Peter Farrer 20-05-1926 to 10-02-2017”. Beaumont, 98, June 2017: 08. PDF.
  • Victoria Haddock. “Transformation: One Man’s Cross-Dressing Wardrobe”. The Costume Society, December 19, 2017. Online.
EN.Wikipedia


Peter Farrer is thus a major trans historian, although some would prefer that there be a greater distance between transvestity, petticoat punishment and fetishism.

Farrer's books were self-published, and Karn Publications Garston has closed down. Some of the books have become very expensive.  I hope that his executor is making some arrangement for the books to remain available.

Lisa Sigel explains the significance of London Life:
‘The combination of low illiteracy rates and the broad suppression of books on sexuality made magazines a particularly important source for information about sex during the interwar years.The generation coming of age in the 1920s and 1930s saw reading as a part of their lives, but books about sex remained hard to access. Libraries refused to stock risqué novels and sexological works by Havelock Ellis, Magnus Hirschfeld, and Richard von Krafft-Ebing. Fearing fines, imprisonment, and hard labour, most booksellers stocked only legal books. As a result, those who actively looked for information about sexuality often had a hard time finding it. One source of information proliferated, however: individuals could eke out a sense of sex from materials at the newsagent’s shop. “Every district, even the poorest,” had a few newsstands that sold magazines and newspapers. George Orwell offers a compelling description of the place of such shops in the local community: “You never walk very far through any poor quarter in any big town without coming upon a small newsagent’s shop. The general appearance of these shops is always very much the same: a few posters for the Daily Mail and the News of the World outside, a poky little window with sweet-bottles and packets of Players [cigarettes], and a dark interior smelling of liquorice allsorts and festooned from floor to ceiling with vilely printed two penny papers, most of them with lurid cover illustrations in three colours.” Intellectuals recognised that periodicals shaped the tastes and minds of the population. “Probably the contents of these shops is the best indication of what the mass of the English people really thinks and feels. Certainly nothing half so revealing exists in documentary form. Best-seller novels, for instance tell one a great deal, but the novel is aimed almost exclusively at people above the £4-a-week level.” A newsstand magazine, London Life boasted a circulation at over fifty-five thousand before the Great War, according to David Kunzle, and this figure rose throughout the interwar years. Advertisements for the magazine were placed on “1,000 cinema screens throughout Britain” in 1928, and it was available in railway stations across India.’ (“Fashioning Fetishism from the Pages of London Life”, The Journal of British Studies, 51, 2012: 667-8)


09 June 2018

Evan Burtt (1900-?) servant

Eva Mary Burtt, a domestic servant in Tisbury, near Salisbury, Wiltshire, came to doubt her sex in the late 1920s. Burtt wrote to the Salvation Army in London seeking help.

This led to an examination by a doctor in Salisbury. Following this the Salvation Army solicitors appealed to the legal authorities, and the Registrar General of Births, Marriages and Deaths agreed to change the registration of Burtt’s birth from female to male.

Evan Montague Burtt, as he now was, announced his engagement to Sarah Edwards, a friend since childhood, and they were married Saturday 30 March 1930.

The case was much reported in the local and national press, almost all accounts quite positive and mentioning that both medical and legal authorities had approved the change. The Wiltshire News reported:
“But on Friday last she bought an outfit of masculine clothing, and to-day she may be seen wearing a smart lounge suit, trilby hat, and carrying a walking stick as though to the manner born. Her bobbed hair has been cropped short, and she speaks in the deep voice of a man. The metamorphosis is complete!”
This was very different to how Victor Barker had been reported only the previous year.




There was no further mention of Evan Burtt subsequent to the wedding, not even in the local register of electors. However in 1939 Sarah Edwards was listed again at her parents’ home and using her maiden name.
  • “Amazing Mystery of a Man-Woman”. Daily Express, 24 March 1930: 1.
  • “Man’s Twenty-Nine Years as a Woman”, Daily Mirror, 25 March 1930: 1.
  • “A Wiltshire Man-Woman”, Wiltshire News, 28 March 1930: 2.
  • “Evan Burtt Married”. Sunday Pictorial, 30 March 1930: 2
  • Clare R. Tebbutt. Popular and medical Understandings of Sex Change in 1930s Britain. PHD Thesis, University of Manchester, 2014: 19, 21, 86, 89-92, 100-111, 170, 204-5. Online.




_____


Tebbutt lists 37 articles in the press about Evan Burtt.

03 June 2018

Julia Doulman (1963 - ) farmer, car racer, bus driver

Paul Doulman grew up in Bathurst, New South Wales, a farming community known for the Mount Panorama motor racing circuit. Like most males in Bathurst he became involved in the car-racing culture. He later moved to Sydney and became a bus driver.

In 2001 film producer-director Ruth Cullen approached Sydney’s The Gender Centre and interviewed a number of persons beginning transition. She chose Paul.
"Paul's initial appeal to me was that he seemed to epitomise the typical Aussie bloke in so many ways yet she had no doubt that she was a woman. I was interested in exploring the contrast between the butch, male exterior and her inner feminine world."
Ruth and Julia
With a camera, Ruth followed Paul who became Julia over a period of two years. Julia was filmed having her hairline lowered, having voice lessons, makeup lessons and dress advice. She changed her legal name, and then changed bus garage so that her new co-workers knew her only as Julia. It is stated but not shown in the film that her family have rejected her. The film also shows her realizing that becoming a woman does not mean that she has to reject her past as a petrol-head, and she is shown attending a race meeting, where she gains the fastest lap time, and is addressed by one and all as Julia. However she does exchange her off-track car for one that she considers to be more ‘girly’.

After filming was complete, Julia lost her bus driving job after abuse from passengers led her to respond. However she then found a job driving for a private bus company.

The film, Becoming Julia, was shown at the Sydney Film Festival in June 2003, where it received a standing ovation. In October Julia returned to Bathurst for a screening which again was well received (although her family stayed away). In April 2004 the film was shown on the SBS television channel.


*Not to be confused with Being Julia, a 2004 commercial film based on a Somerset Maugham story; nor with the novel Becoming Julia by Chris Westwood; nor Becoming Julia de Burgos by Vanessa Perez Rosario; nor the play Becoming Julia Morgan, about the California architect; nor Just Julia, the autobiography by UK trans woman Julia Grant (who was featured in the 1980 BBC pioneering documentary A Change of Sex).
  • Katherine Cummings. “Julia: In Control of her Life”. Polare, 52, June 2003. PDF.
  • Ruth Cullen (dir). Becoming Julia, with Julia Doulman. Australia 50 mins 2003.
  • Alex Mitchell. “Bus driver's quest to become a woman captured on film”. Sydney Morning Herald, June 19 2003. www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/06/17/1055815317167.html.
  • “Julia’s Hometown Welcomes Her Back”. Polare, 55, January 2004. PDF.
  • David Coad. “The politics of Home in Becoming Julia: Transsexual Experience in Australia”. In Chantal Zabus & Davif Coad (eds). Transgender Experience: Place, Ethnicity, and Visibility. Routladge, 2014: 123-136.

IMDB






31 May 2018

Daniel Burghammer (157?–?) soldier, blacksmith

In 1594 Daniel Burghammer joined the Austrian army, and also married. He served in Hungary and in the Netherlands. He was also a blacksmith.

In 1601, he was serving in the squadron of Captain Laymann zu Liebenau of the Madrucci Regiment, and was posted to Piadena, Italy. In late May he complained to his wife of pains in his belly, as if something was stirring within. An hour later he gave birth to a girl-child. His wife called the Captain. Thereupon he was examined and questioned. He confessed that he had always been half man and half woman, although raised as male. While in the Netherlands he had had sex with a Spaniard, and become pregnant, although he kept this secret.

Burghammer suckled the child, although he was able to do this with the right breast only. The child thrived. The priest christened the child with the name of Elizabeth, and put her out for adoption: several towns competed for the right to adopt her. The child was considered a miracle. The church granted Frau Burghammer a divorce in that Daniel’s ability to give birth was incompatible with the role of husband. 


  • Richard Wilmer Rowan. The story of secret service. Literary Guild of America, 1937: 698.
  • George Tennyson Matthews. News and Rumor in Renaissance Europe The Fugger Newsletters.Capricorn Books, 1959: 247-8. Online.
  • Anne Fausto-Sterling. Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. Basic Books, 2000: 35.

27 May 2018

Rosita de la Plata (187? - ? ) female impersonator

In the 1890s and the first few years of the 20th century, it was a lot more difficult to proceed down the transgender path.   Many settled just for stage performance.   The person described here, a porteña  (a resident of Buenos Aires) for whom we have neither a male nor a female name, just a performance name, could be regarded as either a heterosexual transvestite or a heterosexual drag queen, a full eight years before Hirschfeld's book that is given credit for pointing out that not all transvestites were 'homosexual'.

De Veyga collected several gay and trans life stories in the first few years of the century.   While he was ahead of Hirschfeld in doing this, he published only in a journal, and never published a book on the topic.  In 1904 de Veyga left off his clinical histories and became the Surgeon General of the Argentine army.

(all quotes are translations from de Veyga by Salessi)

In 1895 in Buenos Aires, a city quickly growing, two-thirds of the immigrant population were men; in 1914, nearly four fifths of Buenos Aires male adults were foreigners. (statistics given in Salessi)

“Rosita” was one of the minority of men to have a wife in the city. He began by wearing costumes during carnival in the 1890s, continued to do so at other times of the year. He performed in song and dance groups, became well known in the local gay scene, “mixing with uranists of every species".

He took the name “Rosita de la Plata” which was already being used by an Argentinian circus equestrienne. For a while his fame surpassed that of the other Rosita, although with time other performers displaced him.

“To what does he owe his fame? To very little, to be sure. To his care in always lying in wait for parties and to his indefatigable activity in the labour of feminine imitation. ‘Rosita’ follows fashion, and sets the fashion for his peers. Here, he is portrayed in the photograph, in a matinee dress, inciting envy in many for his gracious air and arrogance at the same time. She has imposed the fashion of several costumes and of these outrageous portraits that seem to be a speciality of these people, so idiosyncratic are they.”

de Veyga captioned the photograph: “Rosita de la Plata - Inverted by Suggestion”.

  • Francisco de Veyga, "La inversion sexual adquirida,"Archivosl, 1903: 203.
  • Jorge Salessi. “The Argentine Dissemination of Homosexuality, 1890-1914”. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 4, 3, Jan 1994: 337-368.
  • Jorge Salessi & Patrick O’Conner. “For Carnival, Clinic and Camera: Argentina’s Turn of the Century Drag Culture Performs ‘Woman’”. In Diana Taylor & Juan Villegas Morales (eds). Negotiating Performance: Gender, Sexuality, and Theatricality in Latin/O America.Duke University Press, 1994: 263-273.

22 May 2018

Transgender Surgery III: untruths and unknowns


Part I: 1906 -1965
Part II: 1966 -1975
Part III: untruths and unknowns


Untruths


The old discredited statistics that were refuted in Olyslager and Conway, “On the Calculation of the Prevalence of Transsexualism” ( Online ) are still being repeated. Bizic et al, 2018 (i.e. this year) says yet again: “There are different studies regarding the prevalence of transsexualism in general population accounting for 1 : 7400 to 1 : 2000 in assigned males and 1 : 30040 to 1 : 104000 in assigned females”. This really won’t do!!

Colebunders et al (p251) say ‘Fogh-Andersen initiated the modern era of sex reassignment surgery (SRS) by using penile skin as a full-thickness graft to line the neovagina of Christine Jorgensen”. This is completely at variance with all other accounts that say that Fogh-Andersen performed only an orchiectomy and penectomy on Jorgensen, and that she had vaginoplasty later in the US.

Again and again writers claim that Felix Abraham operated on Lili Elbe and that Lili was a patient of Magnus Hirschfeld. Some examples: the Guardian; GenderSpeaker; Dallas Denny; TransgenderZone. The key document is a paper by Felix Abraham, “Genitalumwandlungen an zwei männlichen Transvestiten“. Zeitschrift für Sexualwissenschaft und Sexualpolitik, 18: 223-226. There is a translation, “Genital Reassignment on Two Male Transvestites” that you can read here. Abraham discusses two patients:
  1. “Rudolph (Dora) R., domestic employee, is today a 40-year-old ‘male’. He was born in the Erzgebirge region.”
------ Dörchen Richter sometimes called Dora, was born with the name of Rudolph Richter in the Erzgebirge region in 1891. Therefore she was 40 in 1931.
  1. “Arno (Toni) E., painter, a 52 year old patient, had first noticed his inclination at the beginning of the 1920s. Despite his homosexual inclination, he got married and from this marriage a boy was born. In the extremely unhappy marriage he had only occasionally the possibility to wear feminine clothing. As frequently happens, during the first years the urge was weaker - to increase later. His inclination essentially preempted him from performing his profession when he did not have the possibility to wear clothing conforming to him. After the death of his wife, he lived completely as a female. Noticeable during the observation was the contrary behavior in male and female clothing: While he was totally calm and reasonable in the latter, in male clothing he was distraught, nervous and utterly worthless. Additionally, he only owned a single male suit, while having a fairly large female wardrobe.“
---- Toni Ebel born Hugo Otto Arno Ebel in Berlin in 1881 and so was 50 in 1931. She was a painter, she lived through WWII and was compensated by the German Democratic Republic as a victim of Nazism. As a painter, she was recognized at the Akademie der Künste in East Berlin.


Why do people refuse to recognize that Arno (Toni) E. is Toni Ebel? Why do they think that this is a discussion of Lili Elbe? Homosexual? a boy child? wife died? No mention of Denmark or France?


Unknowns


Lesavoy says that Abbe’s report on his work was lost for 40 years until McIndoe found it in 1938. However Bizic et al say that Abraham in 1932 operated “in line with the technique first published by Abbe”. How this was, if the report was not to be re-found for another six years, needs to be explained.

Goffe, in 1903, in effect invented penile-inversion vaginoplasty. Apparently like Gillies 40 years later, he did only one such operation. However he did write up the details and published it in a professional journal, American Journal of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children, where it was as forgotten as Abbe’s report was lost.

Is there a connection between Fogh-Andersen, who reported the use of a full-thickness skin graft harvested from the penile skin to line the neovagina in a 1956 publication, and Burou who started doing penile-inversion vaginoplasties, also in 1956? Denny and Conway give full credit to Burou and say nothing at all about Fogh-Andersen. Bizic et al give full credit to Fogh-Andersen and say nothing at all about Burou. Colebunders et al mention both Fogh-Andersen and Burou on the same page (p251) but say nothing about whether or not Burou copied and improved on Fogh-Andersen.

Bizic et al say that the Gillies-Millard penile-skin-flap technique “remains the gold standard in male to female sex reassignment surgery”. Barbosa, Edgerton and Biber consciously copied Burou’s technique, but I have not found any vaginoplasty surgeon who is said to be following Gillies-Millard. Gillies-Millard did use a penile skin flap, and it could be that Fogh-Andersen consciously improved on their work. However the Gillies-Millard book, The Principles and Art of Plastic Surgery, was not published until 1957, a year after Fogh-Andersen’s publication. Maybe Fogh-Andersen did follow Gillies-Millard, but I have not found any such explanation. Nor have I found any claim that Burou followed Fogh-Andersen. Maybe he did, but nobody says so.

At the First International Symposium on Gender Identity held at the Piccadilly Hotel, London, 25-27 July 1969, arguments arose between the team from Chelsea Women's Hospital who regarded transsexuals as a form of intersex, and the team from Charing Cross Hospital who regarded them as having a psychological disorder. So was there a clinic at Chelsea? Did they guide transsexuals through the process. ???

Peter Stirling, an intersex Australian transitioning to male, went to London and was accepted as a patient at Guys Hospital’s Endocrine Clinic. He was guided through the program by social worker Margaret Branch, who also guided other transsexuals. There is no account of this clinic and its program, other than Stirling’s autobiography.


This is a series about transgender surgery. So why does the world’s most famous anti-surgery activist keep re-appearing: as Stoller’s first trans resource at the UCLA Clinic; as an advisor to Harry Benjamin and quoted several times in Benjamin’s book; as the only trans person – other than Reed Erickson - at the 1969 convention in London?

Billings & Urban

A history of transgender surgery that I did not consult for my transgender surgery timeline was,
  • Dwight B. Billings and Thomas Urban. “The Socio-Medical Construction of Transsexualism: An Interpretation and Critique”. Social Problems, 29, 3, Feb., 1982: 266-282.
This was reprinted in In Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds), Blending Genders: Social Aspects of Cross-Dressing and Sex-Changing, Routledge 1996: 99-117, and various other places. It is much cited.

Here is the abstract:
“This article examines transexualism and its treatment by sex-reassignment surgery. Physicians have drawn upon their previous experience with hermaphrodites and the psychological benefits of elective surgery to legitimate sex-change surgery for what they view as a distinct patient population, transexuals. We demonstrate that transexualism is a socially constructed reality which only exists in and through medical practice. Furthermore, we contend that sex-change surgery reflects and extends late-capitalist logics of reification and commodification, while simultaneously reaffirming traditional male and female gender roles.”
The paper closes with:
“But rather than support contemporary movements aimed at reorganising gender and parenting roles and repudiating the either/or logic of gender development, sex-change proponents support sex-reassignment surgery. By substituting medical terminology for political discourse, the medical profession has indirectly tamed and transformed a potential wildcat strike at the gender factory”.
This was published only three years after Raymond’s The Transsexual Empire, and agrees with it that transsexuals would not exist without pushy profit-oriented doctors.  !!

Billings & Urban are not incorrect in what they write, although they twist the interpretation as indicated. They are extremely US-centric and have no interest at all in the work done by GilliesFogh-AndersenBurouRandelSteiner or Ratnam. What facts they do have that are not in my timeline are those relating to the opposition by psychiatrists. That is another tale. I am first concentrating on the surgeons who made transgender surgery what it is.

However there are two items in their footnotes which are not mentioned anywhere else.

1) “Thomas Urban was a participant observer for three years (1978–80) in a sex-change clinic”.

But they do not say which one or otherwise elaborate. Did he leave, as did Grant Williams from the Charing Cross Clinic, because he disagreed with the program? This is an unknown.

2) Footnote 8 reads:

“Other university hospitals, such as the University of Minnesota’s, began surgical treatment at roughly the same time but avoided public disclosure. In addition, a few operations were secretly performed in the 1950s at the University of California at San Francisco. We have learned that Cook County Hospital in Chicago was performing sex-change operations as early as 1947, predating Jorgensen’s famous European surgery by five years.”

We know that Elmer Belt (not mentioned at all in Billings & Urban) was doing such operations at the University of California at Los Angeles in the 1950s. Do they have the wrong city, or is this something lost to history?  Louise Lawrence worked with Alfred Kinsey and Harry Benjamin in San Francisco in the 1950s.   If these surgeries happened there is strange that neither Lawrence nor Benjamin knew about them.  The Langley Porter Clinic, while admitting that psychotherapy did not work, generally would not recommend surgery, although it is said that they did arrange surgery in a couple of cases.  Dr Frank Hinman, urologist, author of  “Advisability of Surgical Reversal of Sex in Female Pseudohermaphroditism”, 1951, was brought in in 1953 to save Caren Ecker after an auto-orchiectomy, which was felt to require a penectomy.


I cannot find any account of transgender surgery at Cook County Hospital in 1947. Orion Stuteville who did transgender surgery at Cook County and Northwestern University Medical School twenty years later was already a surgeon there, but in the dental school. Was it he who did the transgender surgery, or someone else?   Harry Benjamin had requested Max Thorek, a renowned surgeon in Chicago to do an operation, but, after consulting his lawyer, he declined. Again what Billings and Urban are referring to seems to be lost to history.

21 May 2018

Timeline of surgery: Part II: 1966 -1975


Part I: 1906 -1965
Part II: 1966 -1975
Part III: untruths and unknowns

1966 Ricardo San Martin, Buenos Aires

San Martin was convicted of assault. The patient's consent was considered invalid because of 'his' low mental and emotional age and 'the fact that his neurotic craving for surgery made his consent involuntary’.

1966 April 9 – British Medical Journal

“The sincerity and conviction with which these people describe their predicament has inclined many physicians who have studied the disorder to regard transsexualism as an inborn tendency, but the men patients show no chromosomal abnormality and in every possible measure are anatomically and physiologically male.” Online.

1966 Harry Benjamin, New York


  • Harry Benjamin. The Transsexual Phenomenon. The Julian Press, Inc, 1966. 


Then and for many decades later, the definitive book on the subject.  A four-part close-reading.








1966-1979 Psychohormonal Research Unit, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore

Following on from the genital reconstructive surgery done by Hugh Hampton Young in the 1930s-1940s, Lawson Wilkins set up a new pediatric endocrinology clinic where it was recognized that doctors could not tell a person’s sex just by looking at external genitalia, and in some cases recommended to the child and parents that the child’s sex be reversed. The Psychohormonal Research Unit was set up in 1951, and persons who wanted a change of sex kept coming. Milton Edgerton and John Money were major advocates of a new approach. Money became head of the PRU in 1962. He arranged subsidies from Reed Erickson, and met frequently with Harry Benjamin and Richard Green. They decided to set up a Gender Identity Clinic. At first this was in stealth. The first patient was Phyllis Wilson, who became a dancer in New York. The New York Daily News picked up the gossip. Thus outed, the clinic gave an exclusive to the New York Times. Plastic surgeon John Hoopes became chairman of the clinic. This was 1966, the same time that Benjamin published The Transsexual Phenomenon. Within a year, over 700 desperate transsexuals wrote and implored the doctors at the Johns Hopkins Clinic to help them; however very few were recommended for surgery. Initially the clinic did vaginoplasty using skin taken from the patient’s thigh. However they examined trans women who had returned from Casablanca. Dr Edgerton adopted and adapted Dr Burou’s method.  However much of the actual surgery was done by gynaecologist Howard Jones. When Edgerton was contacted by Dr Stanly Biber in 1968, the adaption of Burous’s method was recommended. In 1967 an orchiectomy and construction of a rudimentary vulva was done on 22-month-old Bruce Reimer (later to be David) under the aegis of John Money. In 1975 Catholic psychiatrist Dr Paul McHugh became head of the Psychiatry department at Johns Hopkins. He later wrote that he intended
Mr & Mrs Simmons
from the start to put an end to sex change surgeries. He pushed for a negative review of the operations and got one in 1979 from psychiatrist Jon Meyers and co-author Donna Reter. By this time Green, Erickson, Jones, Edgerton had already left. In fourteen years only thirty people had been operated on. The David Reimer case became a scandal in the 1990s when the adult Reimer was found to have rejected his female assignment. He died by suicide in 2004, and Money stubbornly refused to admit that he had been in error. Other notable patients include: Dawn Langley SimmonsKiira Triea.

1966 - 1979 – Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis

The mayhem law had been dropped in Minnesota when the criminal code was recodified in 1963. A trans woman was admitted to the psychiatric section of the University Hospital, and the staff were persuaded that she should have the surgery that she so desired. After two years of discussion and planning, the School established a Gender Committee under psychiatrist Donald Hastings. Two members went to New York to examine patients of Harry Benjamin and Leo Wollman who had had surgery abroad. Their surgeon, John Blum, went to Johns Hopkins to observe transgender surgery. The first Minnesota operation was done secretly but the press found out anyway. The program opened officially in December 1966. English doctor, Colin Markland, became the chief surgeon on the program. The first two-dozen operations where financed by the state as a research program. Sociologist Thomas Kando interviewed 17 of the first patients, and depicted them as ‘the uncle toms of the sexual revolution’ in his 1973 book Sex Change; The Achievement of Gender Identity Among Feminized Transsexuals which was extensively quoted by Janice Raymond. Up to closure at the end of the 1970s, 41 trans women were operated on, and later 8 trans men also. This from the 300+ applications that the Clinic received each year. In 1974 Markland used bowel segments. This was the first intestinal vaginoplasty done on a trans woman (apart from Charles Wolf in 1942). This procedure was quickly adopted by Dr Laub at Stanford. John Brown also offered it later in his career, but with less satisfactory results. Urologist Daniel C. Merrill later took three cases including Cuban dancer Shalimar and semi-fictionalized their stories. One of the last patients was Margaret O’Hartigan 1979.

1967-? Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago

Orion Stuteville, born in a covered wagon in Oklahoma, was on the US Olympic wrestling team in 1924. He was hired at Northwestern University as a wrestling coach and assistant football coach. He earned a master’s degree in orthodontics, and then an MD at the medical school. After 17 years in the dental school faculty, he became chairman of maxillofacial and oral surgery in 1950. He then directed a plastic surgery residency program, first at Cook County Hospital . He had already performed several transgender surgeries when he set up a gender clinic at the Northwestern University Medical School in 1967. While the surgeons at Johns Hopkins settled on a posteriorly pedicled penile skin flap, Stuteville used an anteriorly pedicled penile skin flap. Stuteville semi-retired in 1970, and in 1975 became a country doctor in Arkansas.

1967-? Gender Identity Research and Treatment Clinic, University of Washington, Seattle
Barbara

Headed by John Hampton, previously of Johns Hopkins. Notable patients include: 1969 Barbara Dayton.







1967- 2001 Michel Seghers, St Joseph’s Hospital, Brussels

In October 1967 Peggy Wijnen died of a blood clot shortly after transgender surgery. Her surgeon, Andre Fardeau, was charged with inflicting fatal blows and wounds with premeditation and willingly but without intent to kill, but died during the trial. This attracted Segher’s attention, and shortly afterwards a French psychiatrist introduced him to a patient who lived and passed as female and had attempted suicide several times in despair. Seghers studied the literature, and realized that he was the only hope for the patient. The operation at St Joseph’s Hospital was successful, and afterwards Seghers communicated the facts to the Belgian Society for Plastic Surgery. He performed over 1,600 operations on trans women, and some top surgery for trans men before he retired in 2001. Notable patients include: Maud Marin, 1974, Yeda Brown, 1975, Veronica Jean Brown, 1985, Michelle Duff, 1987, Michelle Hunt, 1988, Dallas Denny, 1991, Lechane Bezuidenhout, 1992, Christine White, 1993, Rusty Mae Moore, Chelsea Goodwin, 1995, Karine Espineira, 1998, Catrina Day, 1999.

1968 Otto de Vaal, Amsterdam

The first transgender operation in the Netherlands was done by Otto de Vaal in 1968. Very quickly 200 other patients registered with him. He ensured that the operations were covered by the Dutch national health system, and arranged for a politician to introduce a bill so that their name and gender could be changed in the civil registry. In 1971 de Vaal published Man of vrouw?: Dilemma van de transseksuele mens.

1968-2003 Stanley Biber, Mount San Rafael, Trinidad, Colorado

Dr Biber
Biber did his first sex change surgery in 1968 for Ann, a social-worker friend who had been completing her real-life test without his realizing. Biber consulted with Harry Benjamin, who had started Ann on estrogens, and then sent to the Johns Hopkins Hospital for diagrams describing Dr. Burou's technique.  By the late-1970s when the Johns Hopkins Gender Clinic and others closed, Dr Biber had become the major alternate source of transgender surgery in the US. He went on to do thousands of the operation, resulting in Trinidad, Colorado becoming known as the “Sex-Change Capital of the World”, and also trained other surgeons in transgender surgery. He became a celebrity and appeared on television. Notable patients include:  1976 Yasmene Jabar,  1978 Diane Delia, 1979 Nancy Ledins,  Joseph Cluse, 1980 Kay Brown, 1981 Susan Faye Cannon, 1983 Walt Heyer, Rosalyne Blumenstein, 1984 Susan KimberlyBrenda Lana Smith, 1986 Kate Bornstein,  Leslie Nelson , 1989 Les Nichols, 1991 Valerie Taylor, 1992 Claudine Griggs,  Cynthia Conroy, 1994 Melanie Anne Phillips,  Terri O'Connell, 1995 Gloria Hemingway.

1968 onwards – Gender Identity Clinic, Stanford School of Medicine, California

Donald Laub became assistant Professor of Surgery and Chief of the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Stanford University, 1968-1980, where he and Norman Fisk opened the Gender Clinic. In February 1973 the Stanford School of Medicine sponsored the Second Interdisciplinary Symposium on Gender Dysphoria Syndrome, and both Georges Burou and John Brown made presentations. Dr Laub made one of the first academic investigations into the efficacy of transgender surgery. He pioneered rectosigmoid vaginoplasty for trans women from the mid-1970s. He is credited with inventing metoidioplasty and the ‘post-modern’ phalloplasty. Since 1980, the clinic has existed as a non-profit foundation in Palo Alto, Calif., and is not affiliated with the university. More recently the program has been run by gender counselor Judy Van Maasdam. Over 600 have had surgery. Notable patients include: 1968 Charlotte McLeod, 1974 Sandy Stone, 1997 Ben Barres, 2007 Alice Miller.

1968-1980 Benito Rish, Yonkers Professional Hospital, New York

Part-owner of the hospital, and president of its board, Rish did surgery on patients referred by Harry Benjamin and Leo Wollman. Notable patients included Erica Kay 1968; Liz Eden  1973; Mario Martino in 1977, and probably Perry Desmond. From 1972 Dr Rish was sued for malpractice. Yonkers Professional Hospital was closed down after a surprise inspection by the state in 1980.

1968 onwards Viktor Kalnberz, Riga

Kalnberz had already performed four sex correction operations on intersex patients, when in the winter of 1968 he was approached by a 29-year-old trans man, an engineer who had already attempted suicide three times, whom we know only by his female name of Inna. Kalnberz treated him over the next four years. In September 1970 the operation was approved, and it was done in stages. In 1974 Kalnberz was issued a US patent for his penile implant using polyethylene plastic rods – in all he held 23 patents in different countries. He did a further five sex-change operations. He was a member of the USSR Supreme Soviet 1975 – 1990.

1969 onwards, Clarke Institute of Psychiatry (later CAMH), Toronto

Maxine Petersen
In 1969, Betty Steiner, a psychiatrist but without any experience of transsexuals, was appointed the first head of the new Gender Identity Clinic. Her first patient approved for surgery was Dianna Boileau, who was operated on at the Toronto General Hospital using Edgerton’s variation on penile inversion. In January 1973, Steiner reported that 6 patients had been operated on. The Czech Kurt Freund, penile plethysmographer, and USian Ray Blanchard, psychologist, joined the team, and proposed the theory of Autogynephila, which was laid out in the Clarke-published anthology Gender Dysphoria, 1985. In 1984 in the Toronto Star Steiner attributed the social success of the 102 clients who had had surgical sex change through the Clinic in its first 15 years to the fact that only 1 in 10 'men' who request it are approved. By then surgeons in Toronto were reluctant to do transgender surgery, and the Clarke started sending patients to Montréal and the UK for surgery. Steiner retired in 1986 and was replaced by Robert Dickey. Psychologist  Maxine Petersen transitioned to female in 1991, making the Clarke the only Gender Clinic to have a staff member transition. Steiner and her husband died from carbon monoxide poisoning in 1994. Freund retired in 1995 and committed suicide in 1996. Blanchard became head of the Clinic. In 1998 the Clarke was merged with other institutions and became the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH).

25-7 July 1969, The First International Symposium on Gender Identity, London

This was held at the Piccadilly Hotel.. It was sponsored and organized by the Erikson Foundation and the Albany Trust. This symposium brought together various London hospitals that had trans patients, with similar specialist from other countries. Papers were given by John Randall (Charing Cross), surgeon Fred Oremland (Los Angeles), Margaret Branch from Guys Hospital (who had guided Peter Stirling through transition), Richard Green (UCLA), John Money (Johns Hopkins)and Zelda Suplee (EEF). Also in attendence were Poul Fogh-Andersen, Harry Benjamin, Reed Erickson and Virginia Prince. Arguments arose between the team from Chelsea Women's Hospital who regarded transsexuals as a form of intersex, and the team from Charing Cross Hospital who regarded them as having a psychological disorder. The Symposium did bring together the doctors working in the field. PDF of Program.

1969 Richard Green & John Money. 

  • Richard Green & John Money.Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment. The Johns Hopkins Press., 1969.

The first anthology of papers by the major doctors and psychologists doing transgender surgery in the late 1960s. Includes papers by Richard Green, John Money, Ira Pauly, Robert Stoller, Waedell Pomeroy, Jan Walinder, Donald Hastings, Christian Hamburger, Harry Benjamin, Howard Jones, Leo Wollman, John Randell.

1969 Francisco Sefazio, Buenos Aires

Sefazio was charged with aggravated assault but was acquitted on the technicality that all of the patients were actually ‘pseudohermaprodites’ and that he had clarified rather than changed their sex.

1969 onwards Shan Ratnam, Lim & Anandakumar, Singapore

Ratnam was pestered by Shonna who was desirous to have sex change surgery. He became intrigued by the possibility, read the literature and finally practised the operation on two cadavers in the mortuary. He had Shonna evaluated by a team of psychiatrists who confirmed that she was indeed transsexual. Legal clearance was sought from the ministry of health and granted. Surgery was performed 30 July 1971 at the Kandang Kerbau Hospital 竹脚妇幼医院. This was the first such operation in east Asia. A Gender Identity Clinic was set up headed by Prof Ratnam, who ran it until his retirement in 1995, when it was passed to his nephew, Dr. Anandakumar. In 30 years more than 300 sex change operations were performed.

1969 onwards Derk Crichton, Cape Town and then Durban

Crichton, based his technique on that of Shan Ratnam. By 1993 Crichton had done 58 transgender surgeries. Notable patients include : 1975 Lauren Foster.

1970-1980 David Wesser, Yonkers Professional Hospital, New York

Wesser’s first transsexual patients were those who had had surgery elsewhere, and corrections were needed. By 1980 Wesser had done 200 sex-change operations, mainly using Burou’s technique. Yonkers Professional Hospital was closed down after a surprise inspection by the state that year, and the next year he was charged with negligence by a panel that was hand-picked to be partial against him.

1970 -1995 Milton Edgerton, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

Edgerton from Johns Hopkins, became first Chairman and Professor of Department of Plastic Surgery at the University of Virginia. Transgender surgery was discontinued after Edgerton’s retirement.

1971 onwards Roberto Farina, São Paulo Medical School

Farina performed the first transsexual operation in Brazil on Waldirene Nogueira. In 1975 she applied for rectification of her entry in the São Paulo Civil Registry. Her application was denied, and the incident drew attention to her physical condition. In 1976 João Nery was referred by Dr Cesar Nahoum and clandestinely Dr Farina performed a mastectomy and hysterectomy. Attention to Waldirene Nogueira led to Dr Farina being charged, convicted and sentenced to two years imprisonment for serious bodily injury. This interrupted Farina’s intention to perform phalloplasty on João Nery. On appeal in 1978, the judge ruled that the surgery was the only way to assuage the patient’s suffering, the board of the Hospital das Clínicas de São Paulo was in favour of the surgery, and no deception was practiced by Dr Farina. A year later, the 5th Câmara do Tribunal de Alçada Criminal de São Paulo confirmed the appeal and ruled that such surgery was not forbidden by Brazilian Law or by the Code of Medical Ethics.

12-14 September 1971, Second International Symposium on Gender Identity, Denmark

This was held in Elsinore, . Papers were given by Ira Pauly (Portland), Kurt Freund (Clarke Institute), Leo Wollman (New York), Colin Markland and Donald Hastings (Minnesota GIC), V. Hentz and Donald Laub (Stanford GIC), Poul Fogh-Andersen (Copenhagen), Zelda Suplee (EEF) Margaret Branch (Guys Hospital), G Sturup (Copenhagen), Jan Walinder (Goteborg), Marie Mehl (EEF, Miami), Norman Fisk (Stanford), Otto deVaal (Amsterdam), Richard Green (UCLA).

1972-1985 Roberto Granato, New York

From Argentina, Granato did further training in New York. He did about 800 vaginoplasties using the Burou technique. He also did phalloplasties. Notable patients include: Diane KearnyRenee RichardsEleanor SchulerJeanne Hoff.

2-4 February 1973 Proceedings of the Second Interdisciplinary Symposium on Gender Dysphoria Syndrome, Stanford GIC

Both Georges Burou and John Brown gave well-received papers.

1973-1977 Baptist Medical Center, Oklahoma City

Drs David William Foerster and Charles Reynolds founded the Gender Identity Foundation at the Baptist Medical Center. They had done over 50 vaginoplasties, mainly Burou-style penile-inversions, by 1977, and there were another 50 trans women waiting. The Baptist General Convention of Oklahoma finally realized what was happening. One pastor on the hospital Board of Directors called the operations “a Christian Practice”. However in October 1977, the Board of Directors of the Baptist General Convention of Oklahoma voted 54-2 to ban such operations at the Baptist Medical Center. The Gender Identity Foundation transferred to the Oklahoma Memorial Hospital, but the program was ended here too in 1981.

1973-1999 John Brown, California and then Tijuana

After a well-received presentation at the Second Interdisciplinary Symposium on Gender Dysphoria Syndrome at the Stanford School of Medicine in February 1973, Brown was being recommended by Vern Bullough and Zelda Suplee. This was quickly regretted as it came out that Brown operated on kitchen tables and in hotel rooms, used unqualified assistants and took valium before operating. However he networked with transsexual peer groups and charged far less than other surgeons. He initially used the glans penis to form a clitoris, and lined the vagina with scrotal skin. After about 200 operations, his California Medical License was revoked in 1977. He later resumed practice in Tijuana. Some patients were extremely pleased with the results; other suffered many years of pain; some died. Angela Douglas was an early patient.

1974-2004 Herbert Bower & Trudy Kennedy, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne

Bower and Kennedy proposed a gender Dysphoria clinic to the Queen Victoria Hospital, assembled a team of a psychiatrist, an endocrinologist, a speech therapist, a gynaecologist and a plastic surgeon. The first transgender surgery was done the next year, and later the clinic moved to Monash Medical Centre. They had operated on 600 patients by 2004 when a patient, who changed her mind about becoming male, sued for malpractice.

1975 onwards - Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam

Louis Gooren founded a gender clinic at Vrije Universiteit in 1975. Surgery was done by Philip Lamaker. They have treated over 2,200 transsexuals. Gooren was one of the first sex-change doctors to accept patients as young as five years old, although not for surgery at that age. Notable patients include: 1976 Rachel Pollack, 1983 Veronique Renard.
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The following were consulted:

  • Malcolm A Lesavoy. “Vaginoplasty – Construction of Neovagina”. Abdominal Key. Online.
  • Joanne Meyerowitz. How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States. Harvard University Press, 2002.
  • Lynn Conway. Vaginoplasty: Male to Female Sex Reassignment Surgery: Historical notes, descriptions, photos, references and links, 2006. http://ai.eecs.umich.edu/people/conway/TS/SRS.html.
  • “The Development of Modern Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS)”. January 2008. Online.
  • Dallas Denny. “Gender Reassignment Surgeries in the XXth Century”. May 10, 2015. Online.
  • Britt Colebunders, Wim Verhaeghe, Katrien Bonte, Salvatore D’Arpa & Stan Monstrey. “Male-to-Female Gender Reassignment Surgery”. In Randi Ettner, Stan Monstrey & Eli Coleman. Principles of Transgender medicine and Surgery. Routledge, 2016: 250-278.
  • Britt Colebunders, Salvatore D’Arpa, Steven Weijers, Nicolaas Lumen, Piet Hoebeke & Stan Monstrey. Female-to-Male Gender Reassignment Surgery”. In Randi Ettner, Stan Monstrey & Eli Coleman. Principles of Transgender medicine and Surgery. Routledge, 2016: 279-317.
  • Marta Bizic, Vladimir Kojovic, Dragana Duisin, Dusan Stanojevic, Svetlana Vujovic, Aleksandar Milosevic,Gradimir Korac and Miroslav L. Djordjevic. “An Overview of Neovaginal Reconstruction Options in Male to Female Transsexuals”. The Scientific World Journal 2014 (2014): 638919. PMC. Web. 30 Apr. 2018.. www.researchgate.net/publication/263514761_An_Overview_of_Neovaginal_Reconstruction_Options_in_Male_to_Female_Transsexuals. (Click though may not work: copy and paste) or https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/638919.
  • David Andrew Griffiths. “Diagnosing sex: Intersex surgery and ‘sex change’ in Britain 1930-1955”. Sexualities, 21,3, 2018: 476-495. Online.