This site is the most comprehensive on the web devoted to trans history and biography. Well over 1400 persons worthy of note, both famous and obscure, are discussed in detail, and many more are mentioned in passing.

There is a detailed Index arranged by vocation, doctor, activist group etc. There is also a Place Index arranged by City etc. This is still evolving.

In addition to this most articles have one or more labels at the bottom. Click one to go to similar persons. There is a full list of labels at the bottom of the page. There is also a search box at the top left. Enjoy exploring!

10 May 2019

Seattle-Portland-Spokane - Part II – to the Buckwater & Kotala decisions 1996.

Part I – to the closure of The Garden of Allah, 1956.
Part II – to the Buckwater & Kotala decisions 1996.
Part III – to now.


Jazz musician Billy Tipton moved to Spokane. He worked as a talent broker and his trio was the house band at Allen's Tin Pan Alley, performing weekly. This was his best year for sales as his group’s albums sold 17,678 copies despite being signed to a small, independent record label.
  • Billy Tipton. Billy Tipton Plays Hi-Fi On Piano. LP Tops Records, 1957.
  • The Billy Tipton Trio. Sweet Georgia Brown. LP Tops Records, 1957.


Billy Tipton started a relationship with nightclub dancer and stripper Kitty Kelly (later known as Kitty Oakes), who was known professionally as "The Irish Venus". They were involved with their local PTA and with the Boy Scouts. They adopted three sons.

Hotcha Hinton, Jackie Starr and Skippy LaRue were on the road with  working carnivals, performing in girlie shows. The other carnies knew what they were, but not the customers. In addition to the show they had a blowoff (sideshow) act where they did a striptease and even, being very confident of their gaffing, they had men pay to touch their genital area.


Bobby Dayton was sometimes working in the Seattle shipyards.


Ira Pauly, who had been working with Harry Benjamin in New York and was aggregating 100 transsexual cases, obtained a position at University of Oregon Medical School.

Alan Hart died of heart disease at the age of 72. His will specified that he be cremated and that ‘no memorial be erected or created’. His widow Edna lived another 20 years. They left a trust to the Oregon Health Sciences Foundation for research grants in the field of leukemia.

A group of cross-dressers in Portland, including Olivia Perala, began regular meetings.

Marilyn from Seattle was featured in the February 1962 issue of Transvestia.


Ira Pauly completed "Male Psychosexual Inversion: Transsexualism. A Review of 100 Cases" in 1963, but it was not published until 1965. He concluded that that gender surgery had positive results and that trans patients should be supported by medical professionals in their quest to live as the gender of their identity.

Paula Nielsen, a patient of Harry Benjamin, transitioned. In stealth Paula was active in her local Portland Foursquare Church and its choir. She worked as secretary to the comptroller for a theatrical agency.
  • Ira B Pauly. "Female Psychosexual Inversion: Transsexualism. Read before the American Psychiatric Association, St. Louis, May 1963.


Albert Ellsworth had done a BA and masters at the Catholic University of Portland, and a PhD at the University of Bordeau. He had been employed to teach history, French and Spanish at Portland State University, and taken a wife, Helen, and they had three daughters. In 1964 Ellsworth was hired at the newly formed Portland Community College, and stayed the rest of his life. Albert was cross-dressing in private.


Bobby Dayton married again, to Cindy who already had three children.

Francis Blair and her husband of 20 years took a vacation in San Francisco, and they were attacked in Golden Gate Park. The husband and their dog were killed. Francis was left to drive home to Seattle alone, and was killed in a car crash in Oregon.
  • Ira B Pauly. "Male Psychosexual Inversion: Transsexualism. A Review of 100 Cases". Archives of General Psychology, 13, 1965:172-181.
Ira Pauly received a thousand requests from doctors around the world for offprints of his article. It also resulted in a job interview at Johns Hopkins, but Oregon doubled his salary to keep him.


Harry Benjamin’s The Transsexual Phenomenon, p81/37 tells us of “Peter A. (who, however, much prefers to be called Irene). He is a rather well-known musician from Oregon, married for twenty-five years, with a grown-up daughter who knows nothing of her father's hobby. The wife knows and makes the best of it, but does not want to see him ‘dressed,’ except perhaps on occasion of a masquerade ball.”


Bobby Dayton moved to Baltimore with wife and children, and started living as Barbara.  The Johns Hopkins Gender Clinic declined her application based on age, appearance and numerous tattoos. Also Barbara could not afford the fee.

Gender Identity Research and Treatment Clinic opened at the University of Washington, Seattle, headed by John Hampton, previously of Johns Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic in Baltimore.

The Dorian Society, Seattle's first gay rights organization, was founded by UW Professor Nicholas Heer and others.

37-year-old Walter Cole, ex-military club owner, Portland, did drag for the first time at age 37.


Barbara Dayton applied to the University of Washington Gender Clinic, and lived as female for six months, staying with Cindy and her new boyfriend. The University clinic then accepted her.

Lee Leonard had transgender surgery at Minnesota Gender Clinic, and became Liz Lyons.

Jackie Starr’s husband, Bill Scott, had to have both legs amputated. Jackie took care of him till he died.

Katherine Cummings from Australia, having obtained position of Reference Librarian at Oregon State Library in Salem, Oregon, wrote to Virginia Prince for local FPE contacts: none in Salem, only one in Portland, but several in Seattle. The met at the Halloween party. “The Seattle chapter of FPE was one of the liveliest transvestite groups I ever encountered. With one exception all were married and their wives participated with what seemed like genuine enthusiasm. … The only bachelor was the acknowledged leader of the group, a lawyer called Marilyn.”

Virginia Prince met with people at University of Oregon Medical School.

Annette, whose photograph had been the first cover girl on Transvestia #5, invited FPE, as he did most years, to visit his remote ranch in Idaho. Most of the Seattle Chapter went, and Virginia drove up from Los Angeles. Katherine Cummings was present and observed that Virginia managed to alienate most of the wives by telling them that she was just as female as they were. (Cummings: 185).
  • Ira B Pauly. “The current status of the change of sex operation”. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Nov;147, 5, 1968:460-71.


Barbara Dayton had transgender surgery in December 1969, the first done at the University of Washington Gender Clinic. Ten days later Barbara returned to surgery for a colostomy. Her parents arrived, and stayed with Cindy. Follow-up operations continued through 1970 and 1971. Barbara trained in data processing, but was unable to find any work, and was frequently depressed. She had still not told her children.

The University of Washington Gender Clinic announced itself to the press.

Walter Coleman left his wife of 18 years and came out as gay. He took the name Darcelle for his drag alter ego, and for his club.

Seattle's Dorian House, which provided counseling and employment help for homosexuals, opened its doors. It was the first institution of its kind in the United States.
  • Ira B Pauly. “Adult Manifestations of Male Transsexualism” and “Adult Manifestations of Female Transsexualism”. In Richard Green & John Money (ed). Transsexualism and Sex-Reassignment. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1969: 37-87.
  • Ursula K Le Guin. The Left Hand of Darkness. Ace books, 1969. A science fiction novel by a Portland resident about a planet where the inhabitants are without gender, that inspired both trans and cis readers.


Verissa, completed legal and surgical transition and was advertised as such at the Magic Inn, Seattle.

New Trenns magazine. A new magazine for trans persons out of Seattle. Published by Empathy Press.


November 24, 1971, Thanksgiving Eve, a man using the name Dan Cooper purchased a walk-on ticket for a 727 flight from Portland, Oregon to Seattle. He handed a note to a stewardess to the effect that he had a bomb. He demanded $200,000 in unmarked twenty-dollar bills and two sets of sports parachutes. These being provided, he allowed the passengers to disembark at Seattle. Cooper demanded that the plane, now refueled, take off for Mexico City via Reno, no faster than 170 knots at 10,000 feet, and that the cabin be left unpressurized. He sent all the crew into the cockpit. He then opened the back door and after a while jumped. Due to a miscommunication with the media, the perpetrator came to be referred to as DB Cooper. The FBI was unable to find the parachute, a body or the money. Bill Dayton, watching the news reports about the hijacking thought that he recognized his brother.

December 1971, at a follow-up interview, the doctors noted that Barbara Dayton had a much more positive attitude to things, and shortly afterwards she was able to get a job at the Suzzallo Library at the University. She came out to her son, Dennis.

Bill Plant/ Peewee Nattajon had been a dancer at the Garden of Allah, and later had been a private nurse for the comedian George Burns after his wife Gracie had died in 1964. He then helped the elder Nattajon through the last years of his life. In 1971 He was a founder of the Awareness of Life Church in Renton, Washington. He and his straight son continued to do drag performance for Seattle charities into the 1990s.


Marilyn from FPE’s Lambda chapter started an annual Dream retreat.

Jamison Green completed a MFA in creative writing at the University of Oregon.

Dr William McRoberts of the University of Washington Gender Clinic announced that it had processed 13 MTF transsexuals, with excellent results in 7 cases, satisfactory in 5, and one failure.


Barbara Dayton bought a surplus airplane. Her son Dennis and his new wife accepted Barbara.

Catholic psychiatrist Paul McHugh became the chairman of psychiatry at the University of Oregon.


Douglas Perry of Spokane was arrested for second degree assault.

June24-30. Seattle’s first Gay Pride Week, included a discussion on transsexuality at the University of Washington Hub Ballroom.
  • Ira B Pauly. “Female Transsexualism”. Archives of Sexual Behavior,3, 1974: 487-526.


++Jessica Salmonson, Seattle science-fiction writer and co editor of The Literary Magazine of Fantasy and Terror transitioned on the job.

Dennis Dayton, son of Barbara, died of a drug overdose in May 1975. The funeral led to a reconciliation with daughter Rena whom Barb had not seen for ten years.

Walter Coleman’s Darcelle’s became a popular place for drag performance.

Paula Nielsen joined the Portland Metropolitan Community Church. She became church secretary, came out publically as transsexual, assisted the pastor, edited the church newsletter and participated in the student clergy program. She was the religion editor for the NW Fountain, a gay community paper.

Catholic psychiatrist Paul McHugh left the University of Oregon to become head of the Psychiatry department at Johns Hopkins. He later wrote that he intended from the start to put an end to sex change surgeries which he described as “the most radical therapy ever encouraged by 20th-century psychiatrists— with perhaps the exception of lobotomies”.
  • Liz Lyons. Up Your Ass. LP Angelo Production, 1975.


Jonathan Katz realized that “H” in Gilbert’s 1920 write-up and Alan Hart were the same. In his Gay American History, Katz wrote of Hart’s hysterectomy as an example of unneeded medical mutilation forced on a lesbian. Gay/lesbian historians were unable to interview his widow in that they persistently alienated her by thinking of her husband and thus herself as lesbians.

Jackie Graham was found guilty of second-degree murder after a trick became belligerent on finding that she ‘was not a woman’.
  • Jamison Green. Eyes: stories. Olive Press, 1976.


Pat and Ron Forman met Barbara Dayton at the Thun Field airstrip. Some months later Barb accepted invitations and became a regular dinner guest at the Furmans on Sunday nights.

Seattle’s Ingersoll Gender Center founded for and by transgender and gender diverse persons.

Christina Kempf, a “self-professed transsexual”, offered immunity in exchange for testimony in the Thomas Ragan rape-murder trial.


February Barbara Dayton told the Formans that she had been a transsexual.

Ira Pauly became chair of the University of Nevada Medical School


Douglas Perry was found guilty of a dangerous weapons violation.

Billy Tipton separated from his wife, and he and his sons moved into a mobile home in Spokane.

A group of pilots at the Thun Field airstrip were discussing the DB Cooper affair when Barbara Dayton surprisingly denied that Cooper was a fool and revealed detailed knowledge of the case. Ron joked that Barb must be DB Cooper. Later Barb admitted that she – in reverse drag - really had been DB Cooper, although she subsequently denied it.

Kay Brown and various other cis and trans women were living at CedarStar.

Ira Pauly was a founding member of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association, (now WPATH).
  • Liz Lyons. Live: From Around the World to You. LP 1979.


Barbara Dayton lost her pilot's license due to medical problems, but kept flying anyway.

Paula Nielsen débuted on the stage of the Darcelle XV showplace where, billed as "Portland's Own Red Hot Mama", she did Sophie Tucker impersonations. Through the 1980s, Paula wrote a column that was printed in four different alternate publications.

Northwest Gender Alliance (NWGA) founded in Portland.


Jonathan Katz in his Gay/Lesbian Almanac re-asserted that Alan Hart was a lesbian.

Jennifer Cleasby discharged from a training course for dance instructors, solely because she was trans.
  • Kim Elizabeth Stuart. The Uninvited Dilemma: A Question of Gender. Metamorphous Press, 1983. Metamorphous Press was located in Lake Oswego, a suburb of Portland. A conservative guide for heterosexual transsexuals by a cis writer and mother of four, based on interviews with 70 who had gone through the process. The book became quite popular. Overview. Review by Rupert Raj.


The Right to Privacy Political Action Committee in Oregon established an annual “Lucille Hart Dinner” thinking that they were honoring Alan Hart. This event was attended by Portland’s liberal elite, gay and straight both, and regularly raised more than $100,000 for charities.


Ira Pauly became president of the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association for two years.

NWGA was listed in the gay newspaper, Just Out.


Douglas Perry was arrested for second degree assault.

Jackie Starr lived the last ten years of her life in a mobile home near the Seattle-Tacoma airport. She was as meticulous as ever in her appearance, and when she and her friends went to the Golden Crown drag bar in Seattle, the younger generation of drag performers would crowd around.


Douglas Perry was found guilty of reckless endangerment with a firearm.

Margaret Deirdre O’Hartigan, from Minnesota, had applied for a typing job with the Washington State Police in Seattle, and discovered that only police forces and a few others may require a polygraph test asking questions to prospective employees about private matters. With the ACLU she sued the Police on this matter.

Anne Lawrence, also from Minnesota where had self-prescribed hormones, became an anesthesiologist at Seattle’s Swedish Medical Center. Still living as male, Lawrence married a woman and they had two children.

Paula Nielsen had her own television gospel show, and was featured as a guest on television shows in the US, the UK and Canada.


Douglas Perry was arrested by Federal Agents for possession of a pipe bomb. A search of his home discovered 22 handguns (including .22 handguns), 27 rifles and 20,000 rounds of ammunition. Thus he became a convicted felon.

Barbara Dayton retired from her library job, and opened an aircraft restoration shop at Thun Field airstrip with Bob Birch who had been flirting with her for some time. She lived in a room at the shop. The business lasted for 4 years.


Douglas Perry was arrested in Spokane for soliciting sex from prostitutes.

Billy Tipton, aged 74, died in Spokane, and examination of his body outed him as a trans man.

Margaret O’Hartigan and the ACLU won their case against the State Police requiring polygraph tests.
  • The Brussels Experience. Seattle: Ingersoll Gender Center 16 pp 1989. What to expect if you have surgery with Dr Seghers.


Three sex workers, Nickie Lowe, Kathy Brisbois and Yolanda Sapp, were murdered in February and March 1990. All three were shot with a .22 caliber gun, and their nude or partially nude bodies were found in or near the Spokane River. At the time investigators considered the three deaths to be part of the longer string of prostitute murders.
  • Henry Bair. "Lucille Hart Story" and Brian Booth "Alan Hart: A Literary Footnote", in Right to Privacy Ninth Annual Lucille Hart Dinner Booklet (October 6, 1990).


Barbara Dayton and Bob Birch sold their aircraft restoration business. Barbara moved in with Bob in Tacoma, Washington, and as he deteriorated with age, she became his full-time care-giver despite family antagonism to her presence.

Anne Lawrence restarted hormones, and underwent electrolysis.

Washington State Supreme Court reversed the ruling won by Margaret O’Hartigan and the ACLU two years previously.
  • The Trinidad Experience. Seattle: Ingersoll Gender Center 16 pp 1992. What to expect if you have surgery with Dr Biber,


Toby Meltzer began performing vaginoplasty surgeries. He almost gave up after his first transgender surgery discovering how much he did not know. The patient required additional surgery, but sent a thank-you note. He persevered, and began performing vaginoplasty at Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU).

Margaret O’Hartigan obtained a ruling against a Seattle bisexual women’s group that excluded her because she is transsexual.

Margaret O’Hartigan wrote: “Every application of the term transgender to me is an attempt to mask what I've done and as such co-opts my life, denies my experience, violates my very soul. I changed my sex. … I am not transgender.”

Filisa Vistima, (more) Seattle, dead by suicide at age 22. Prior to her death she had been working at the Lesbian Resource Center, cataloguing the library, helping out on the paper.
  • Tom Cook & Thomas Lauderdale. “The Lucille Hart Story: An Unconventional Fairy Tale.” The Lucille Hart dinner. Reprinted as "The Incredible Life and Loves of the Legendary Lucille Hart," Alternative Connection, Vol. 2, Nos. 12 and 13 (September and October 1993).


Douglas Perry was again arrested for unlawful possession of firearms and ammunition, including a .22 handgun and a couple of .22 rifles. As a convicted felon Perry was prohibited from possessing firearms.

Albert Ellsworth married Sandra, a close friend whom he had known for decades, who worked in administration at Portland Community College. Shortly afterwards, Ellsworth started talking about changing sex, and transitioned on the job at the age of 66. She was one of the first patients of surgeon Toby Meltzer. Her legal name became AJ Bobbie Ellsworth, but she was from then generally known as Babette. Sandra could not relate to this and they were divorced shortly afterwards.

Rev David Weekly started pastoring congregations in Idaho and Oregon, including Salem, Corvallis, Forest Grove, Montavilla and then Epworth UMC in Portland.

Kay Brown wrote to the free Portland gay magazine, Just Out: “The Right to privacy Political Action Committee in Oregon has a big fundraiser every year that is called the Lucille Hart Dinner. When I am asked if I am going, I indignantly answer, ‘Not until they stop using the wrong name and gender for one of our heroes! His name is Alan’. ”
  • Margaret Deirdre O'Hartigan. “The Joy of Fat”. Dimension Magazine, February 1994. Reprinted in Harper’s Magazine, May 1994


Douglas Perry was in prison in Oregon from January 1995 to October 1997. Other inmates later reported that he talked about taking prostitutes home, and talked in such a way that they thought that he was involved in the prostitute murders.

Ira Pauly retired.

Margaret O’Hartigan moved to Portland, Oregon, where she persuaded the Phoenix Rising Counseling Center to include trans persons. She publicized the role the Unitarian Universalist Church had had in publishing Raymond’s The Transsexual Empire. She established the Filisa Vistima Foundation in order to collect funds to aid indigent transsexuals gain access to health care.

O’Hartigan and other transsexuals were alienated by NWGA which was run by a heterosexual part-time cross-dresser who spoke against public and insurance funding of surgery.

Kay Brown, Rachel Koteles and Ken Morris co-founded the Ad Hoc Committee of Transsexuals to Recognize Alan Hart. Koteles addressed the Portland Lesbian Avengers who agreed to hear a presentation from the Ad Hoc Committee, and agreed to work with the Ad Hoc Committee. Brown and Morris travelled to Seattle and recruited fellow trans persons Kaz Suzat and Jason Cromwell.

October 11: Tom Cook started to give his lecture “The Legendary Life of Lucille Hart, alias Dr Alan Hart’. The Ad Hoc Committee and Lesbian Avengers unfurled a 20-foot banner: HIS NAME WAS ALAN. This shook Cook enough that he actually started using male pronouns for Hart.

October 14: at the Lucille Hart Dinner, a transsexual wearing a HIS NAME WAS ALAN button met the diners, and gave them a flyer urging that Hart be recognized as the transsexual hero that he was. The flyer also contained a message from the Lesbian Avengers: “We view the Right to Privacy’s use of ‘Lucille’ instead of Alan as disrespectful and divisive. The Lesbian Avengers call upon the Right to Privacy to respect Alan Hart and stop referring to him with a name that he rejected.”

Dr Joy Shaffer, a college trans friend of Kay Brown who had started a medical practice in San Jose, California, brought Anne Lawrence to meet Kay. As a professional courtesy, Lawrence had been able to observe Dr Meltzer do a sex-change operation. Lawrence obtained a court order for a name change. Lawrence had by now abandoned her marriage and transitioned socially, including as work. Anne Lawrence was one of Meltzer’s first patients, six months after social transition. This was a special concession as Meltzer normally required a full 12-month real-life test, and 12 months of therapy.

Reid Vanderburgh began transition.


February 2: Kay Brown and six other transsexuals met with Right To Privacy board for a three-hour meeting.

Portland Right to Privacy renamed itself to Right to Pride, and its fundraising event was renamed the “Right to Pride Dinner”.

Ken Morris and Rachel Koteles became board members of the Vistima Foundation.

There were sometimes problems finding beds for patients at OHSU, so Dr Toby Meltzer opened his private practice at the Eastmoreland Hospital, a 100-bed medical center also in Portland, and over the next few years expanded to take more than 50% of the surgical workload. In the early days of the internet, word about his work spread in transgender chat rooms.

After a second divorce with the same wife, Joanna McNamara moved to Salem, Oregon and did a law degree. On graduation, she acted pro bono for Lori Buckwalter who had been fired from Consolidated Freightways for starting transition, and intended to marry a woman before surgery. McNamara won her argument that transgender persons were covered by Oregon disability law. This led to a conflict with transactivist Margaret O’Hartigan who felt that she deserved the credit as she had been campaigning on the same case.  In either case, Oregon became the second US State (after Minnesota) to protect trans persons in its employment law. O’Hartigan put down McNamara and her client as ‘men’ who had enjoyed ‘adult white male privilege’ because they had not become women until their 40s.

Dean Kotula, 38, from Minnesota, obtained work as a shipyard machinist in Portland, and started transition. Being called to work less and less, he obtained his work record where it stated “was F, now M” with a notation that he should not be called back. He obtained a ruling from the Bureau of Labor and Industry that he was protected under the Oregon Disability Law.

Kay Brown and Joanna McNamara worked as legislative lobbyists with It’s Time Oregon, successfully removing language from a bill which otherwise would had removed the employment protection gained by the Buckwalter case. Using a one-two punch strategy, they set up appointments with a members of the legislature, then during the first part of the meeting, Kay acted as if she were JoAnna’s assistant.  JoAnna did not pass well, so during this time, the legislative member and staff would assume that only she were trans, and Kay was her non-transsexual female assistant. When the moment came Kay would out myself to explain that it was not just the inability to get hired as a known transsexual that was at stake, but that if one was already employed and one was discovered to be transsexual, one would then be fired, passed over for promotion, demoted, or harassed to force one to quit, giving personal anecdotes of just such occurrences.

Margaret O’Hartigan had sought an alternative to NWGA and lobbied the Phoenix Rising Counseling Center for gays and lesbians to also counsel trans persons. Phoenix Rising received a $9,000 grant to serve transsexual and transgender young people. 

Margaret O’Hartigan received Pride NorthWest’s “Spirit of Pride Award” for her “tireless advocacy for the trans community and for trans consciousness raising with both the Les/bi/gay and general straight cultures”. She has opposed the removal of Gender Identity Disorder from the DSM in that the associated HBIGDA Standard of Care is non-abusive unlike what she was exposed to as a child, and attacked Phyllis Burke's Gender Shock which documents abusive attempts to 'cure' gender variant children as a 'transphobic' book.

Dean Kotula, offering support to a friend Kenny after his mastectomy, came to know cis photographer Cheris Hiser, who encouraged him to take over her project of photographing trans men.

Dean Kotula obtained a ruling from the Bureau of Labor and Industry (BoLI) that he was protected under the Oregon Disability Law. He was able to continue working in the shipyards despite harassment from both workers and management. Enough money was saved to pay for surgery.

Marie Caitlin Brennan, musician, lived and performed in Seattle, and pioneered using the MP3 format.
  • Don Paulson with Roger Simpson. An Evening at the Garden of Allah: A Gay Cabaret in Seattle. Columbia University Press, 1996.
  • Jason Cromwell. Making the Visible Invisible: Contrictions of Bodies, Genders and Sexualities by and about Female-to-Male Transgendered People. PhD thesis, University of Washington, 1996.

The following were consulted in compiling this section of the timeline.
  • Henry Bair. "Lucille Hart Story" and Brian Booth "Alan Hart: A Literary Footnote", in Right to Privacy Ninth Annual Lucille Hart Dinner Booklet (October 6, 1990).
  • Harry Benjamin. The Transsexual Phenomenon. Julian Press, 1966. Warner Books Edition 1977
  • Brian Booth. The Life and Career of Alberta Lucille/Dr. Alan L. Hart with Collected Early Writings. Lewis & Clark College, 1999.
  • Kay Brown. Transsexual, Transgender and Intersex History …. 1997-2000. . Archive.
  • Walter Cole & Sharon Knorr. Just Call Me Darcelle: A Memoir. CreateSpace, 2011.
  • Jason Cromwell. Making the Visible Invisible: Contrictions of Bodies, Genders and Sexualities by and about Female-to-Male Transgendered People. PhD thesis, University of Washington, 1996.
  • Jason Cromwell. Transmen and FTMs: Identities, Bodies, Genders, and Sexualities. University of Illinois Press, 1999.
  • Kirstin Cronn-Mills. Transgender Lives: Complex Stories, Complex voices. Twenty-First Century Books, 2015.
  • Katherine Cummings. Katherine’s Diary: The Story of a Transsexual. Beaujon Press, 2008. Katherine worked at the Oregon State Library in Salem in 1968-9.
  • Mara Dauphin. “ ‘A Bit of Woman in Every Man’: Creating Queer Community in Female Impersonation”. Valley Humanities Review, Spring 2012.
  • Ross Eliot. Babette: The Many Lives, Two Deaths and Double Kidnapping of Dr. Ellsworth. Heliocentric Press, 2014.
  • Pat & Ron Forman. The Legend of D. B. Cooper - Death by Natural Causes. Lulu, 2008.
  • Joshua Allen Gilbert. “Homosexuality and its Treatment”. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 52, 4. Oct 1920: 297-322. Identified the patient, Alan Hart, only as ‘H’. The article is a mix of the patient’s and the doctor’s writing. In line with the practice of the time, the patient’s condition is labeled ‘homosexuality’.
  • Chrystie Hill. “Queer History in Seattle, Part 1: to 1967”. History Link, April 2003.
  • Chrystie Hill. “Queer History in Seattle, Part 2: After Stonewall”. History Link, November 2003.
  • Jonathan Ned Katz. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A., Thomas Y. Crowell Co. 1976, revised edition 1992.
  • Jonathan Ned Katz. Gay/Lesbian Almanac: A New Documentary, Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. 1983, Carrol & Graf Publishers, Inc. 1994.
  • Dean Kotula (ed). The Phallus Palace: Female to Male Transsexuals. Alyson Books, 2002.
  • Ursula K Le Guin. The Left Hand of Darkness. Ace books, 1969. A science fiction novel by a Portland resident about a planet where the inhabitants are without gender, that inspired both trans and cis readers.
  • Diana Wood Middlebrook. Suits Me: The Double life of Billy Tipton. Houghton Mifflin, 1998.
  • Paula Nielsen. The Trans-Evangelist: The Life and Times of A Transgender Pentecostal Preacher. CreateSpace, 2012.
  • Margaret Deirdre O'Hartigan. "Post-Modernism Harms Women". Off Our Backs. 29, 1, 1999: 6-13.
  • Margaret Deirdre O'Hartigan. "Postmodernism Marches on: Women's Space Under Continued Attack". Off Our Backs. 29, 8, 1999: 9.
  • Ira B Pauly. "Female Psychosexual Inversion: Transsexualism. Read before the American Psychiatric Association, St. Louis, May 1963.
  • Ira B Pauly. "Male Psychosexual Inversion: Transsexualism. A Review of 100 Cases". Archives of General Psychology, 13, 1965:172-181.
  • Ira B Pauly. “The current status of the change of sex operation”. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Nov;147, 5, 1968:460-71.
  • Ira B Pauly. “Adult Manifestations of Male Transsexualism” and “Adult Manifestations of Female Transsexualism”. In Richard Green & John Money (ed). Transsexualism and Sex-Reassignment. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1969: 37-87.
  • Ira B Pauly. “Female Transsexualism”. Archives of Sexual Behavior,3, 1974:487-526.
  • Maija Anderson. Interview with Ira B. Pauly, MD. Oregon Health & Science University, Oral History program, Februray 18, 2015. Online
  • Danni/y Rosen and Ampersand Crates. “Oregon Trans Timeline”. The Gay & Lesbian Archives of the Pacific Northwest (GLAPN), 2017. Lists Alan Hart in 1917, but then no other transsexual until the 21st century.
  • Kim Elizabeth Stuart. The Uninvited Dilemma: A Question of Gender. Metamorphous Press, 1983.

Empathy Press/ Empathy Forum were active in the 1970s, with a Seattle address. They published under various names: Empathy, The Transvestite, New Trenns. However there is little recorded about them. You may find some of their publications at Digital Transgender Archive.

Here is Kay Brown on the NorthWest Gender Alliance (NWGA):  “O’Hartigan relocated to Portland, Oregon where her outspoken and abrasive manner alienated her from a transgender/crossdressers organization, NorthWest Gender Alliance (NWGA). To be fair... she was not the only transsexual to feel uncomfortable with the organization as it did not empower transsexuals to even run their own support groups... instead a heterosexual part time cross dresser ran the group! The facilitator had made remarks that several transsexuals felt were indicative of opposition to public and insurance funding of surgery. Remarks were published in the NWGA newletter that Ms. O’Hartigan took exception to... and were later retracted, with apologies, at her request.”

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