He was at Minnesota looking for a dissertation topic when the university’s medical school did its first sex-change operations. He interviewed 17 post-op MTFs, aged 21 to 55, two weeks to two years post-op.
He found four basic ways of adjusting to being female:
- the housewife who desired respectability;
- the stripper who flaunts her stigma;
- the aspiring housewife who cannot find a husband, not being attractive enough;
- the career woman who is well-educated and doesn’t try to pass.
Kando's major follower is Janice Raymond, who spends 7 pages in The Transsexual Empire enthusiastically summarizing his work.
Carol Riddell emphasizes that the short period post operative is too short. That trans women become much like cis women after a few years.
Bolin directly refutes his conclusions, by finding something close to the opposite to be the case.
- Thomas Kando. “Passing and Stigma Management: The Case of the Transsexual’.The Sociological Quarterly 13, Fall 1972.
- Thomas Kando. Sex Change; The Achievement of Gender Identity Among Feminized Transsexuals. Springfield, Ill: Thomas 1973.
- Thomas Kando. I Spent My Life Practicing Politically Incorrect Sociology.www.csus.edu/indiv/k/kandot/I%20SPENT%20MY%20LIFE.pdf: 54-6.
- Janice G. Raymond The Transsexual Empire: The Making of the She-male. Boston: Beacon Press. 1979: 79-86.
- Carol Riddell. “Divided Sisterhood : A Critical Review of Janice Raymond's 'The Transsexual Empire' “. Liverpool: News from Nowhere 1980. Reprinted in Stephen Whittle & Susan Stryker (eds).The Transgender Studies Reader.Routledge.752 pp. 2006: 146, 152.
- Anne Bolin. In Search of Eve: Transsexual Rites of Passage. South Hadley, Mass: Bergin & Garvey, 1988: 113-6.
Kando's results were never replicated. What went wrong?
- His sample of 17 was far too small, although of course far larger than that of Michael Bailey.
- His subjects were at most two years post-operative. This is too short a period for the questions asked.
- He asked the wrong questions, and did not respect his subjects.