This site is the most comprehensive on the web devoted to trans history and biography. Well over 1200 persons worthy of note, both famous and obscure, are discussed in detail, and many more are mentioned in passing - especially in the year-end summaries (see links in right sidebar.)

There is a detailed Index arranged by vocation, doctor, activist group etc.

In addition to this most articles have one or more labels at the bottom. Click one to go to similar persons. There is a full list of labels at the bottom of the page. There is also a search box at the top left. Enjoy exploring!

20 October 2010

A Blanchard-Binary Timeline – Part 1: to 2000

See also my essay: What is Autogynephilia?

This is intended as a broad overview.  For Lynn Conway's timeline that concentrates on the events of 2003-7  see Here.

++ = added later


  • Magnus Hirschfeld. Die Transvestiten; ein Untersuchung uber den erotischen Verkleidungstrieb: mit umfangreichem casuistischen und historischen Material. Berlin: Pulvermacher, 562, vi pp1910. Hirschfeld takes the existing word ‘transvestite’, redefines it as an erotic activity and divides the transvestites by sexual orientation. Available in German only until 1991.


Arnold Lowman born.


Kurt Freund born.


Betty Steiner born.


Edward Westall born.


  • Otto Fenichel .”The psychology of transvestism”. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 11, 211–227. 


    Paul McHugh born.


    • Magnus Hirschfeld revised by Arthur Koestler and Norman Haire. Sexual Anomalies And Perversions: Physical And Psychological Development And Treatment - A Summary Of The Works Of The Late Dr Magnus Hirschfeld. Francis Aldor Publisher, 1936. Emerson Books,1948. Until the 1991 translation of Die Transvestiten, this is the Hirschfeld book used by most English sexologists.


    Arnold Lowman’s first marriage.


    Ray Blanchard born.

    William Orobko born.

    Edward Westall marries a Canadian, moves to Hamilton, Ontario, becomes a school teacher.


    Arnold Lowman’s second marriage.
    • B. Karpman. “Dream life in a case of transvestism with particular attention to the problem of latent homosexuality”. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 106, 292–337. 


      Anne Lawrence born.


      Anjelica Kieltyka born.

      Denise Magner born.


      Lisanne Anderson born.

      ? Lem Clemmensen born


      Kay Brown born.

      J Michael Bailey born.


      Arnold Lowman, as Virginia Prince, started Transvestia magazine.


      Arnold Lowman convicted of sending obscene material through the mail.


      Virginia Prince met twice a month with psychiatrist Robert Stoller. This would continue for 29 years.


      Richard Novic born.


      Failed Czechoslovak rising. Kurt Freund leaves for Canada.

      Virginia Prince appeared on television.
      • Robert Stoller. Sex and Gender. London: Hogarth. ‘Homosexual early transitioner’ came to be the more accepted usage for Primary.  


        Clarke Institute of Psychiatry Gender Indentity Clinic founded on a part-time basis, Betty Steiner director.

        Jennifer Ross born.
        • H. Taylor Buckner. “The Transvestic Career Path”. Read at the American Sociological Association annual meeting. San Francisco, September, 1969. Psychiatry. Vol.: 33, No. 3. August,1970: 381-389. Online at:


          Archives of Sexual Behavior founded by Richard Green.
          • Virginia Prince. How To Be A Woman Though Maleclip_image001. Sandy Thomas Publications 193 pp. 


            Georges Zavitzianos proposes the term 'homeovestite'.  Despite its similarity to autogynephilia in women, Blanchard will never address the term.


              Ray Blanchard completes his PhD, and moves to Canada.

              Edward Westall separates from his wife.
              • Thomas Kando. Sex Change; The Achievement of Gender Identity Among Feminized Transsexuals. Springfield, Ill: Thomas. By limiting his sample to recently transitioned transsexuals, Kando creates a picture that will later be compared to autogynephilia. 


                Denise Magner has surgery at Johns Hopkins GIC.
                • Jan Morris. Conundrum. London: Faber. The best-selling autobiography written in her immediately post-op euphoria phase contributes to the false image that Kando initiated.
                • Ethel Person and Lionel Ovesey. “The transsexual syndrome in males. I. Primary transsexualism”. American. Journal of Psychotherapy 28; 174-193.
                • Ethel Person and Lionel Ovesey. “The transsexual syndrome in males. II. Secondary transsexualism”. American. Journal of Psychotherapy 28; 4-20. They designated a Primary Transsexual as one who is functionally asexual and who progresses resolutely toward a surgical resolution without significant deviation toward either homosexuality or heterosexuality. They define a Secondary Transsexual as one who is a homosexual and effeminate from early childhood into adulthood. Within the Secondary classification they identified two sub-classes: Homosexual transsexualism and Transvestitic transsexualism. 


                  Paul McHugh appointed head psychiatrist at Johns Hopkins University.

                  The Clarke Institute Gender Identity Clinic becomes full-time with the blessing of the Ontario Ministry of Health


                  Ray Blanchard becomes a clinical psychologist at the Ontario Correctional Institute in Brampton, where he meets Kurt Freund.


                  Edward Westall becomes Susan Huxford, and is accepted by the Clarke GIC.


                  Paul McHugh closes the Johns Hopkins GIC.
                  • Janice Raymond. The Transsexual Empire. Boston: Beacon Press: Chp III draws on Kando and Morris to describe all transsexuals as if they are similar to autogynephiles. Blanchard never refers to this book in print. 


                    Ray Blanchard starts at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry.

                    Susan Huxford has SRS courtesy of the Clarke GIC.

                    Kay Brown has SRS courtesy of Dr Biber.


                    Susan Huxford becomes director of FACT.
                    • Kurt Freund, Betty W. Steiner, & S. Chan, “Two types of cross-gender identity”. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 49–63. 


                      Zagria applies to and is rejected by the Clarke GIC
                      • Betty W. Steiner (ed) . Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management. clip_image001[2]New York & London: Plenum Press. The full model HSTS-Autogynephilia is explained.


                        FACT re-organizes as Transition Toronto in rebellion against Susan Huxford.
                        • Frederick L. Whitam and Robin M. Mathy. Male Homosexuality in Four Societies: Brazil, Guatemala, the Philippines, and the United States. New York: Praeger.   Like Freund & Blanchard, Whitam divides trans persons into two types based on sexual orientation and stereotypes them in a similar way.  Neither Blanchard nor his acolytes ever mention this book.


                          Anne Lawrence marries.

                          J Michael Bailey becomes professor of Psychology at Northwestern University.
                          • Ray Blanchard. “The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria”. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 616-623. 


                            • Ray Blanchard & Betty W. Steiner (eds.). Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.  Includes a paper on "Gender Identity Disorders in Adult Women" by Blanchard where he does recognize some heterosexual women (i.e. gay trans men), but only the four cases published in psychiatric journals.  Lou Sullivan is still being ignored.


                              Lem Clemmensen, Clarke GIC Coordinator, transitions to become Maxine Petersen.
                              • Emily S.Apter. Feminizing the Fetish: Psychoanalysis and Narrative Obsession in Turn-of-the-Century France. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991. The first major book refuting the nonsense idea that woman cannot be fetishistic.
                              • Magnus Hirschfeld translated into English by Michael A Lombardi-Nash. Tranvestites: The Erotic urge to Crossdress. Buffalo: Prometheus Books. 424 pp. 81 years later, this essential book is finally available in English. 


                                Anjelica Keiltyka transitions.


                                • Louise J. Kaplan Female Perversions: The Temptations of Emma Bovary. New York: Doubleday, 1991. London: Penguin 1993. While written according to the conventions of psychoanalysis, a clear demonstration that women can be fetishistic. 


                                  Ray Blanchard on the gender dysphoria sub-working group for the DSM-IV, 1994.

                                  Denise Magner active as Kiira Triea in Hermaphrodites with Attitude, a publication of the Intersex Society of North America.

                                  Betty Steiner and her husband die from fumes from car running in their garage.


                                  Kurt Freund retires. Ray Blanchard becomes Head of Clinical Sexology Services at the Clarke Institute.

                                  Viviane Namaste funded by Health Canada to do needs assessment for trans persons in Toronto. Of her sample of 33, 19 were enrolled at the Clarke GIC. No mention of either Blanchard or Autogynephila.

                                  Progressive Conservative Party under Mike Harris become the government of Ontario, with an item in their manifesto that they would discontinue funding under the provincial health plan for SRS.

                                  Anne Lawrence transitions at work, separates from wife, observes Dr Meltzer do a SRS.

                                  William Orobko arrested in Thailand.
                                  • Vivianne Namaste.  Access Denied:  A Report on the Experiences of Transsexuals and Transgenderists with Health Care and Social Services in Ontario.   Commissioned by CLGRO: Project Affirmation, July, 1995.
                                  • J. N., Zhou, M. A. Hofman, L. J Gooren, & D. F Swaab. “A sex difference in the human brain and its relation to transsexuality”. Nature, 378, 68-70. 6 deceased trans women had a small ‘female sized’ BSTc in their brain. Three were gynephilic, 1 bi, 2 androphilic, all started hormones 35 or later. Online at:
                                  • Lorraine Ganman & Merja Makinen. Female Fetishismclip_image001[6]. London: Lawrence & Wishart 1994. New York: New York University Press 1995. 


                                    Kurt Freund, suffering from lung cancer, takes his own life.

                                    Anne Lawrence has SRS with Dr Meltzer.

                                    ++ Kay Brown meets Anne Lawrence, but feels that the distinction of the two types is largely unimportant to the needs of the community.


                                    Anne Lawrence resigns after unauthorized vaginal inspection of unconscious patient.

                                    ++ Anne Lawrence, Ray Blanchard,  Kiira Triea, Bo Laurent, Heike Boedecker, Anne Fausto-Sterling, Milton Diamond, Suzanne Kessler active in Michael Bailey's non-public discussion list SEXNET.

                                    Kay Brown starts her Transsexual, Transgender, and Intersex History.  No mention of Blanchard or anything similar.
                                    • Frederick L. Whitam “Culturally Universal Aspects of Male Homosexual Transvestites and Transsexuals”. In Bonnie Bullough, Vern Bullough & James Elias (eds). Gender Blending. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. 1997. 


                                      Suspension of Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) funding for gender surgery.

                                      Jennifer Ross transitions with the Clarke GIC.

                                      Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) formed from a merger of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, the Addiction Research Foundation and the Queen Street Mental Health Centre.

                                      William Orobko transitions to Willow Arune.

                                      Maxine Petersen contributes to the 5th version of HBIGDA SOC.

                                      Maxine Petersen reviews Holly Devor's FTM: Female-to-Male Transsexuals in Society, and discovers autoandrophiles.


                                        Michelle Josef’s lawsuit to get gender surgery relisted under the Ontario Health Insurance Plan is supported by Ray Blanchard.

                                        Anne Lawrence works with Andrea James on possible book.

                                        Anne Lawrence gives two papers at the 16th Biennial Harry Benjamin Conference in London. Richard Ekins & Dave King incorporate her ideas into their concept of ‘erotic femaling’.

                                        ++ Kay Brown and Lynn Conway meet and discuss the two-type taxonomy.


                                        Kay Brown suspends her Transsexual, Transgender, and Intersex History.

                                        Robert Dicky and Maxine Petersen of the CAMH GIC denied Synthia Kavanagh approval for SRS in that, being in prison, she could not do a Real Life Test.
                                        • Ray Blanchard. “Autogynephilia and the Taxonomy of Gender Identity Disorders in Biological Males”. International Academy of Sex Research. Paris 2000. 

                                        Continued in Part 2.

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