Part 2: the Cold War
Part 3: recent developments
Sex testing continued another 10 years beyond the end of the Cold War, but the arguments for it were becoming less persuasive. Not that problems for intersex women were over, especially in Asia where sport associations were slow to adopt the new approach. On the other hand, transsexual athletes were coming out and competing. The attitude of the IAAF and the IOC was that regulations were required for transsexuals, and they came up with the Stockholm Consensus, which is a step forward, but contains requirements that are not available in all countries.
The supposed physical advantage of trans women over cis women failed to materialize as trans women athletes failed to make it on to their nation’s Olympic teams despite being being allowed to compete.
|1990 Gay Games III - Vancouver |
|7,300 competitors. |
A Christian homophobe takes out full page ads in the Vancouver papers condemning the event as proof of an "impending sodomite invasion" and encourages residents to gather at Empire Stadium to pray against the event. The British Columbia government refuses funding for the event.
++James Hayes competes in NASCAR Winston Cup.
|1991||Cis bodybuilder Bev Francis denied a win in Ms Olympia contest because of low score on ‘femininity’. |
April Capwill in news, as others claim that she has an unfair advantage in women’s running events.
++James Hayes in a near fatal racing accident.
|1992 Barcelona Olympics||9356 male competitors, 2701 female. |
IOC introduces new sex test based on sex determining region of Y chromosome. 2406 female competitors subjected to a sex test. 11 women fail the test, but they were not identified, and we don’t know whether they were allowed to compete.
35 countries still sent all-male delegates.
The first Games without boycotts since 1972.
Maria Jose Martinez Patino failed to qualify by hundredths of a second.
14 out GLBT competitors. 7 won medals.
1st Olympic Gay and Lesbian Visitors Centre.
Return of post-Apartheid South Africa.
Now-united Germany send a single team.
Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia send national teams. Other Soviet republics compete as ‘Unified Team”.
Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovinia sent national teams. The rump of Yugoslavia is subject to UN sanctions and may not compete.
Baseball an Olympic sport for the first time. Medals taken by Cuba, Taipei and Japan.
|1992||IAAF drops all sex testing on grounds a) doping regulations required athletes to pass urine in front of a witness b) modern sportswear is so revealing that a man could not masquerade as a woman. |
1st gay Eurogames – The Hague.
International Gay and Lesbian Football Association founded.
++Gerry Greenberg writes England Rugby star Wade Dooley's autobiography.
|1993 Euro games II – The Hague.||Opened by the Dutch Minister of Sport.|
|1994 Gay Games IV – New York City.||10, 864 competitors – more than the Olympics. 25th anniversary of Stonewall. |
US lifts ban on HIV+ persons entering the US but only for the duration of the games.
|1994||James Hayes transitions as Terri O’Connell, surgery by Dr Biber.|
|1995||Mianne Bagger completes transition. |
Eurogames III – Frankfurt.
|1996||Eurogames IV - Berlin |
++Thai volleyball team Iron Ladies win national championship. Some of Kathoey players try for national team but are rejected.
Michelle Dumaresq completes transition.
|1996 Atlanta Olympics||6797 male competitors, 3523 female. |
3387 female competitors subjected to a sex test.
Brazilian judoka Edinanci Fernandes da Silva and 7 others fail the new Y-region sex test, but allowed to compete anyway after further examination. 3 had Complete AIS, and 4 had Partial AIS.
29 GLBT competitors, 15 win medals.
In a poll of female competitors, 82% felt that testing should continue and 94% said that the tests did not make them ‘anxious’.
Iran sent first female competitor.
The ex-Soviet republics send separate teams. Yugoslavia was allowed to send a team. Czech Republic and Slovakia send separate teams.
US terrorist exploded pipe bomb, killed 1, injured 111.
|1997||Heidi Kreiger transitions to Andreas. |
Danielle Swope completes surgery to remove ambiguity.
Eurogames V – Paris.
++Gerry Greenberg, sports writer, starts transition.
|1998 Nagano Winter Olympics||1389 male competitors, 787 female. |
679 female competitors who do not have certification from a previous Olympics are subjected to a sex test. This is the last Olympics to have sex tests.
|1998 Gay Games V - Amsterdam||14,715 competitors – more than any other multi-sport event, gay or straight, before or since.|
|1998||Iyabo Abade has sex test and is barred from women’s football. |
Nong Tum, openly kathoey, wins first of 22 Muay Thai fights. ++Nong Tum invited to Tokyo to fight Kyoko Inoue, champion female wrestler who has defeated male opponents and of an higher weight category. Tum won.
|late 1990s ||American Medical Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, The American College of Physicians, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Endocrine Society, and the American Society of Human Genetics call for elimination of sex verification,stating that the method used is uncertain and ineffective.|
|1999||IOC drops sex testing. |
Ewa Kłobukowska rehabilitated.
Michelle Duff publishes her autobiography.
Michelle Dumaresq wins mountain biking competition.
Nong Tum completes transition.
Eurogames VI Manchester
|2000||Bev Francis inducted into Body-building Hall of Fame. |
Li Anne Taft and Tammy Wronski barred from Na Wahine O Ke Kai paddling until ACLU intervention.
Renée Richards inducted into USTA Eastern Tennis Hall of Fame.
Eurogames VII – Zurich.
Peter Sonksen analyses testosterone levels for around 650 Olympic athletes. Almost 5 percent of the women were in the male range for testosterone and more than 6 percent of the men were in the female range
|2000 Sydney Olympics||6582 male competitors, 4069 female. |
1st Olympics in 3 decades without blanket sex testing.
Bahrain sends first female competitors.
Afghanistan barred because of the Taliban’s oppression of women, and prohibition of sports.
Yvonne Buschbaum 6th female pole-vaulter. Germany.
Erika Coimbra Bronze volleyball for Brazil. Questions are raised about her sex, but she is allowed to continue.
42 GLBT competitors, 19 win medals.
Closing ceremony included a parade of 50 drag queens.
|2002 Gay Games VI - Sydney||13,000 competitors|
|2002||Michelle Dumaresq, cyclist, licensed to race as a woman. Wins the Canada Cup series. |
Ando Hiromasa, speed boat racer, transitiones after 17 years in the sport.
Yvonne Buschbaum Bronze in polevaulting.
|2003 Santo Domingo Pan-American Games||Edinanci Fernandes da Silva, Gold in judo for Brazil|
|2003||Chris Dale ascends Dun Dubh, Britain’s last unclimbed mountain. |
++Gerry Greenbery completes transition as Donna Gee.
Eurogames VIII - Copenhagen
|2004||Statement of the Stockholm Consensus on Sex Reassignment in Sports which sets out rules for trans people in sports: Those who have undergone sex reassignment and associated hormone therapy prior to puberty can now compete; those who begin their transition after puberty are eligible for participation if surgical anatomical changes, hormone therapy and legal gender change have been completed. |
Footballer Iyabo Abade becomes James Johnson with surgery in Los Angeles funded by the Nigerian Government.
++Zainab Rabie, Bahraini shot-putter, has home searched for performance enhancing drugs, as she has masculine build and deep voice.
Danielle Swope banned from female golfing because of birth certificate.
Mianne Bagger first trans golfer allowed in women’s tournament after Australian association removed ‘female at birth’ requirement.
Michelle Dumaresq finishes 17th at World Mountain Bike Championships.
Christina Kahrl, sports writer, transitions.
++Frank Maloney, boxing manager, UKIP candidate for London mayor, makes negative comments about LGBT people.
Gay Games drop Montreal in favour of Chicago. Montreal organizers found Outgames.
Eurogames IX – Munich.
|2004 Athens Olympics||IOC admits trans athletes in target gender under the Stockholm Consensus. |
Renee Richards quoted as saying that trans women should not be allowed to compete with female athletes.
25 GLBT competitors, 11 win medals.
|2005||Shanthi Soundarajan wins the 880 metres, 1,500 m and 3,000 m events at Bangalore. At the Asian Championships at Incheon, South Korea she wins the 800 m silver medal. |
Eurogames X – Utrecht.
++Hussain Rabie transitions.
++Natalie van Gogh, racing cyclist, transitions
|2006||Peter/Pip Wherrett comes out as trans. |
Gay Games VII – Chicago.
1st OutGames – Montreal. Cis Montreal MP Réal Ménard competes in wrestling.
Pinki Pramanik Gold in 4x400 m relay for India at Melbourne Commonwealth Games; 3 Golds for India at Colombo South Asian Games.
|2006 Doha Asian Games||Shanthi Soundarajan wins the 800 m silver medal at the Asian Games in Doha. She then fails a subsequent sex test and is stripped of the medal, despite the fact that persons with similar intersex conditions are now accepted by the Olympics. |
Pinki Pramanik Gold in 4x400 m relay for India.
|2007||Foekje Dillema dies. Max Dohle published her biography. |
Mike Penner, sports writer at Los Angeles Times publicly transitiones as Christine Daniels.
Bobbie Dittmeier, sports writer, transitions.
Sarah Gronert, submits to sex testing and the World Tennis Association allows her to compete.
Joanna Harper, runner accepted as female member of USATF.
++Renée Richards 2nd autobiography, No Way Renée.
|2007 Rio de Janeiro Pan-American Games||Edinanci Fernandes da Silva, Gold in judo for Brazil|
|2008||Peter Drouyn transitions to Westerly Windina on national television. |
++Natalie van Gogh, cyclist, 1º in Omloop van Strijen, , (Strijen (F)) , Strijen (Noord-Brabant), 1º in Batavus Zomerrace/ Voorjaarsrace, , (Heerenveen (F)) , Heerenveen (Friesland).
Heinrich/Dora Ratjen dies at age 90.
Christine Daniels returns to being Mike Penner.
Hussain Rabie, diabled shot-putter and discus thrower, recognised as male by Bahraini High Civil Court.
Yvonne Buschbaum transitions as Balian.
++Terri O’Connell publishes autobiography.
South African cis footballer Eudy Simelane, on national women’s team, raped and murdered.
|2008 Bejing Olympics||War between Georgia and Russia starts on the opening day. |
The Chinese Olympics Commmitte announce the re-introduction of sex testing for selected women.
UAE sent two Dubai princesses as first female competitors.
24 GLBT competitors, 11 win medals.
Kristen Worley, cyclist, is not able to qualify for the Canadian team because of family illness.
|2009||Patti Swansson, sports writer, transitions. |
Pip Wherrett dies.
Mike Penner commits suicide.
Sarah Gronert wins two tournaments.
Lana Lawless, Palm Springs, wins female Long Drive Championship. In reponse the association changed its rules to require ‘female at birth’ matching the LPGA. Lawless sues both.
Cis athlete Caster Semenya, South African runner, wins gold in 800 metres and 1500 m at the Athletics World Championships. Although 15 women had run faster, she has her sex questioned and is tricked into taking a sex test. She is enthusiastically supported by South Africans.
++Frank Maloney managed boxer Rendall Munroe as he fought for world Super bantamwight championship. Then suffered heart attack, and was admitted to hospital after boxer Darran Sutherland hanged himself.
Sanam XI, an hijra cricket team, beat the local club in Sukkur, Sindh.
Mercedes Newbiggin, light middlewight boxer, starts transition.
++Jennifer McCreath runs in Boston marathon, and wins a gold medal for achievement in the 2009 World OutGames in Copenhagen . She ran the 1500 metre freestyle swim and marathon run in the third gender category.
World Outgames II – Copenhagen. Three bombs are thrown. Dean Koga, the only athlete injured, wins gold next day.
Kristen Worley co-founder of Coalition of Athletes for Inclusion in Sport (CAIS).
++Chris Moser competes in female NYC triathlon.
|2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics||Women’s ski jumping excluded. This was in conflict with Canadian law but court ruled that IOC was beyond the reach of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.|
|2010||Caster Semenya cleared to run. |
Chris Tina Bruce, bodybuilder, transitions.
Leyla Çalışkan, Turkish basketball coach.
Donna Rose, wrestler.
++Chris Moser competes as male, featured in The Advocate.
++Diane Neil, rugby player and landscape gardener, transitioned.
Kye Allums continues to play women’s college basketball as not yet taking testosterone.
++Jennifer McCreath runs in Boston marathon.
++Mikki Nicholson won the British National Scrabble championship.
Kristen Worley goes to India to speak out for Shanthi Soundarajan.
US Ladies Professional Golf Association voted to remove its ‘female at birth’ rule as being sued by Lana Lawless. ** see comment below
At convention in Manchester, Gay Games and Out Games agree to join together.
Owen Anderson, editor of Peak Performance, was quoted: “Using fair velocity comparisons, in heights per second, not meters per second, the fastest woman in the world is almost 2 percent faster than the quickest man.”
|2011||Chris Dale dies. |
Chicago Outfit Roller Derby League now permits trans women.
Chris Mosier competes in New York City Triathlon as a man.
++Kye Allums, who continued playing on a womens’ basketball team before taking hormones, suffered a series of concussions, and had to stop participating.
Footballer Jonny Saelua part of American Samoan team in its World cup victory over Tonga.
Chris Tina Bruce, US bodybuilder.
Alyn Libman, US, competes in the men’s figure skating.
US National Collegiate Athletic Association, after taking advice from National Center on Lesbian Rights removed requirement of surgery to be recognized as target gender.
++Brigitte Boréale, sports journalist on Pink TV, Paris.
++Frank Maloney retired from boxing.
++Natalie van Gogh, cyclist, 1º in Wielerronde van Nispen, , (Nispen (F)) , Nispen (Noord-Brabant).
++Terri O’Connell racing again in an all-female team.
++Renée, film biography of Renée Ricahrds.
|2012 London Olympics ||Coincides with Ramadan. |
Qatar, Brunei & Saudi Arabia send first female competitors.
First Olympics where women compete in all 26 sports on offer, but in 30 fewer events, except for exclusion of women’s canoe racing events in violation of the Equality Acts.
IOC: Women who test in the male range for testosterone, and whose bodies respond to the hormone, may not be eligible to compete as females.
Caster Semenya leads South African team in Opening Ceremony.
Cis stuntman Gary Connery in drag as Betty Windsor parachuting at Opening Ceremony.
GLBT Pride House abandoned after funding and sponsorship difficulties.
++The third Olympics since the Stockholm Consensus on Sex Reassignment in Sports. However almost no trans athletes qualify.
|2012 ||OutGames & GayGames announce that they cannot agree. |
Pinki Pramanik’s ex-wife accused her of rape and of being a man, and she is obliged to take a sex test.
Lindsay Walker, US basketball.
++Natalie van Gogh, cyclist, 1º in Ronde van de Bakkerstraat, , (Bovenkarspel (F)) , Bovenkarspel (Noord-Holland).
Keelin Godsey, women’s hammer throw, not yet on testosterone, fails to make the US Olympics team.
++Malcolm McGregor announces impending transition to Cate in final chapter of An Indian Summer of Cricket.
++The first comprehensive history of Sports, Gender and Trans, in 3 parts by Zagria.
++Pablo S. Torre & David Epstein. “The Transgender Athlete”. SI Vault, May 28, 2012. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1198744/index.htm.
++Tranny Olympics, Bethnal Green Working Men’s Club, Tower Hamlets, London, 4 August, and Berlin.
++Drag Queen Olympics, Amsterdam. Video.
++Brooke Fantelli, off-road racer, doing a photo shoot in the California desert when a Bureau of Land Management ranger checked papers, takes offence that Fantelli is trans and tasers her in the groin. She files a federal lawsuit.
++Gabrielle Ludwig, 50, 6'8", returns to playing basketball.
++Savannah Burton, as a male, represented Canada at the World Dodgeball Federation World Championships in Kuala Lumpur, finishing in second place.
++Lindsey Walker, 26, 7’0”, basketball player, contacts Guinness Book of Records re being world’s tallest transsexual.
++Sasha Hostyn, 18, dominates in Starcraft 2 championship in Toronto, winning $15,000.
++Thai boxer Usanakorn Kokietgym accused of having too much testosterone.
|2013||++Aeris Houlihan is told by England Football Association that cannot play on women's team until two years after her operation. |
++Bobbie Lancaster, golfer, tries out for LPGA tour.
++Cory Oskam gets to skate with hockey star Cory Schneider.
++Drew-Ashlyn Cunningham, of My Transsexual Summer is now UK's 1st trans wrestler.
++Fallon Fox, MMA fighter, comes out in an interview with Outsports, and some challenge her right to fight females.
++Harley Ryder, wrestler.
++Taylor Edelmann, volleyball captain.
++Tony Bias, school basketball player, Los Angeles.
|2014 ||++Catherine McGregor featured on ABC's Australian Story. She continues to play and to write about Cricket. |
++Renée Richards 3rd autobiography, Spy Night and Other Memories.
++Bobbi Lancaster, LPGA Golfer thinks that her pre-transition past does give her an unfair advantage, and therefore chooses to play against younger women.
++Chloie Jonsson, personal trainer, Santa Cruz, California, banned from competing in women's section of CrossFit Games. Sues.
++Dutee Chand, 17, cis Indian athlete, dropped from the Commonwealth Games contingent at the last minute after the Athletic Federation of India states that hyperandrogenism made her ineligible to compete as a female athlete.
++Enza Anderson and Savannah Burton, after two months practice, as part of Team TRANS-fusion, comes 4th out of 5 in a 22km rowing race on the Ottawa river.
++Fallon Fox, 38, the controversy of her fighting in female MMA matches continues. The Case Against. Fallon's reply.
++Jaiyah Saelua plays football for American Samoa in a FIFA qualifier, and breaks a long losing streak. ++Kinnon MacKinnon, 28, Toronto, wins in powerlifting at Gay Games 9 in Cleveland.
++Michelle Diamond, goal umpire, officiating Victorian Amateur Football Association matchs.
++Pinki Pramanik, track athlete, previously charged with rape and assault by her girlfriend, exonerated
++Natasha Payne, 51, takes bronze in the World Pole-Dancing Championships.
++Pat Cordova-Goff, Azusa, California, allowed to play on girls' softball team.
++Frank Maloney, ex-boxing manager announces that is transitioning as Kellie.
++Minnesota State High School League, having problems deciding about trans athletes.
++An all-trans football club in Colombia. ++The British Medical Journal publishes an article on the current policies of the IOC, IAAF and FIFA, reporting that several women have recently been coerced into “partial clitoridectomies” and gonadectomies in order to compete.
++The UK Football Association issues new guidelines: Any transgender person wishing to play in their affirmed gender can seek to do so by contacting the FA to obtain clearance.
++4 players in Iran's women's national football team are deemed not to be women – they were intersex or trans women who had not yet had correction surgery. Mandatory sex tests are now required.
++Australian Sports issues Anti-Homophobia & Inclusion Framework For Australian Sports. Comment
|2014 Sochia Winter Olympics||Russia denied the proposed GLBT Pride House at Sochi Winter Olympics. There were Olympics-oriented LGBT demonstration in Moscow, St Petersburg and Sochi. |
++ex-MP Vladimir Luxuria was arrested in Sochi during the Olympic Games for demonstrating against Russia's anti-gay laws.
2016 Rio Olympics
|++Kellie Maloney completes transition. |
++Bruce Jenner, after years of rumors, is involved in a vehicular homicide and starts a highly publicized transition as Caitlyn, and monitizes it as a television program.
++Matt 'Kroc' Kroczaleski, who holds men's world titles in powerlifting, announced as trans, as Janae Kroc, but will wait until sons complete high school.
++Natalie van Gogh, cyclist, 1º in Trofee Maarten Wynants, , (Helchteren (F)) , Houthalen/Helchteren (Limburg); and 1º in Stage 1 Lotto-Decca Tour, Lotto-Belisol Tour, , (Belgium Tour (F)).
++Chris Moser on the Team USA sprint duathlon men's team for the 2016 Olympics.
++Aydian Dowling, bodybuilder, made the finals of the competition to appear on cover Men's Health magazine.
++cis female footballer Genoveva Anonma in Equatorial Guinea forced to strip naked as sex test after scoring winning goal.
Indian sprinter Dutee Chand successfully challenged the IAAF’s hyperandrogenism regulations
++Revision of Sports, Gender and Trans, in 3 parts by Zagria.
IOC rules there to be no no restrictions on trans men in men's activities; surgery no longer required for trans women, but must demonstrate that testosterone level below 10 nanomoles per liter for at least one year.
Kristen Worley, trans woman, challenges rule against artificial testosterone as her body does not produce natural female level.
IAAF rules re maximum testosterone levels of 10 nanomoles per liter, apply for all female contestants. This rule is challenged and may lapse in 2017. Some cis women exceed this amount.
Chris Mosier on US team, and in Nike advert.
Opening ceremony hosted by model Lea T.
Nothando Vilakazi, on South African women's football team, accused on social media of being a man.
In compiling this timeline, the following were consulted:
- “Out of the Blocks: LGBT sport”. LGBT History Month/Timelines. http://lgbthistorymonth.org.uk/website/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Out-of-the-Blocks-6.pdf.
- Olympic Women: Dedicated to Women’s Sporting Pioneers. www.olympicwomen.co.uk.
- Jacob Anderson-Minshall. “Out of Bounds: Do Transsexual Athletes Throw Like Girls?” bitchmedia. http://bitchmagazine.org/article/out-bounds.
- Anorak. “A history of Olympic gender scandals”. www.anorak.co.uk/324047/sports/a-history-of-olympic-gender-scandals.html.
- Georg Facius. “The major medical blunder of the twentieth century”. Play the Game, 09 July 2008. www.playthegame.org/knowledge-bank/articles/the-major-medical-blunder-of-the-twentieth-century-1090.html.
- Stephanie Findlay. “Olympics struggle with ‘policing femininity’”. Toronto Star, June 08, 2012. www.thestar.com/sports/london2012/article/1205025--olympics-struggle-with-policing-femininity.
- Matt Guilbeault. “Intersexism in Sports: A Human Rights Issue”. http://diki.heliohost.org/intersexism.htm.
- Vanessa Heggie. “Testing sex and gender in sports; reinventing, reimagining and reconstructing histories”. Elsevier Sponsored Documents: Endeavour, 2010 December 34(4): 157-163. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3007680.
- Rebecca Jordan-Young & Katrina Karkazis. “You Say You’re a Woman? That Should Be Enough”. New York Times, June 17, 2012. www.nytimes.com/2012/06/18/sports/olympics/olympic-sex-verification-you-say-youre-a-woman-that-should-be-enough.html?_r=1.
- James L.Rupert. “Genitals to Genes: The history and Biology of Gender Verification in the Olympics”. CBMH/BCHM, 28,2, 2011: 339-365. www.cbmh.ca/index.php/cbmh/article/view/1447/1414.
- Amanda Schaffer. “Gender Games: The Olympics has a new way to test whether athletes are men or women. Is it Fair?” Slate, July 25, 2012. http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/fivering_circus/2012/07/olympics_sex_test_the_international_olympic_committee_has_a_way_to_test_whether_athletes_are_men_or_women_is_it_fair_.html
- Matt Stopera. “The 10 Most Shocking Olympic Gender Scandals”. Buzzfeed, 2010. www.buzzfeed.com/mjs538/the-10-most-shocking-olympic-gender-scandals.
- David Stubbs. “Women playing a greater role at the Olympics”. CanWest, July 21, 2008. www.canada.com/victoriatimescolonist/story.html?id=e66b4b6b-48d1-4192-bb6b-899d87b98230.
- Sarah Teetzel. “Equality, Equity and Inclusion: Issues in Women and Transgender Athletes' Participation in the Olympics”. http://umanitoba.academia.edu/SarahTeetzel/Papers/300705/Equality_Equity_and_Inclusion_Issues_in_Women_and_Transgender_Athletes_Participation_in_the_Olympics.
- Pable S. Torre & David Epstein. “The Transgender Athlete”. Sports Illustrated, May 28, 2012. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1198744/index.htm.
- Gregory Woods. “Comment: Sport and spectacle – the queer side of the Olympics”. Pink News, 26 July 2012. www.pinknews.co.uk/2012/07/26/comment-sport-and-spectacle-the-queer-side-of-the-olympics.
- Kristen Worley: Gender, Inclusion, Community, Health, Sports & Empowerment. http://kristenworley.ca.