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15 March 2013

Virginia Prince: Bibliography.

Part 1 – Youth and First marriage
Part II – Second Marriage
Part III – Femmiphilic activist
Part IV – Full-time Living
Part V – Transgenderist dowager
Jargon terms and general comments

As I have supplied line source notes, it is seemly that I should provide the bibliography now, rather than at the end.

As usual on this site, the bibliography is in chronological order. It is not by author surname.

Where a source item is simply Docter, the reference is to From Man to Woman, 2004. If to either of his other books, a year is given.

It is interesting that so many books and articles have been written about Virginia Prince, but none of them mention that she published three books under the name Arnold Lowman. She also wrote transvestite fiction anonymously. Such are marked below as: Anonymous (Virginia Prince).

  • Charles Leroy Lowman. A Collection of Papers Dealing with Some Physical, Educational, Physiotherapeutic & Orthopaedic Problems. Los Angeles,1924.
  • Charles Leroy Lowman, Claire Colestock & Hazel Cooper. Corrective physical education for groups: a text book of organization, theory, and practice /cby Charles Leroy Lowman, Claire Colestock, Hazel Cooper . New York: A.S. Barnes.1928.
  • Charles Leroy Lowman. Balance skills in physical education, . Ann Arbor, Mich., Edwards brothers, inc. 1935.
  • Charles Gurchot & Arnold Lowman. "A Stable and Potent Lactic Dehydrogenase Preparation". Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (New York, NY). Vol. 35. No. 2. Royal Society of Medicine, 1936.
  • Charles Leroy Lowman. The Therapeutic Theatre. New York: Samuel French, 1937.
  • Charles Leroy Lowman, Susan G. Roen, Ruth Aust, and Helen G. Paull. Technique of Underwater Gymnastics . Los Angeles, Calif: American Publications, inc, 1937.
  • Arnold Lowman. The Preparation, Standardization, and Properties of Lactic Dehydrogenase. University of California, Berkeley: MS Thesis 1937.
  • Arnold Lowman. Carbohydrate Metabolism and Its Relation to the Cancer Problem. University of California, Berkeley: PhD Thesis,1939.
  • Charles Gurchot & Arnold Lowman. The preparation and properties of a potent lactic dehydrogenase powder . Berkley, Calif: University of California press, 1939.
  • Charles Leroy Lowman & Susan G. Roen. Therapeutic use of pools and tanks . Philadelphia: Saunders, 1952.
  • “Father Admits Liking to Wear Feminine Garb”. “Man Who Dons Women’s Attire Wins Son Case”. Los Angeles Mirror, March 4-5, 1953. Online at:
  • Charles Leroy Lowman. Abdominal Fascial Transplants . Ann Arbor, Mich: Edwards, 1954.
  • Arnold Lowman. Chemistry in Your Beauty Shop . New York: Milady Pub. Corp, 1955. Rev & enl 1959. Rev 1965. Rev & enl 1976.
  • C.V. Prince, with a preamble by Harry Benjamin. “Homosexuality, Transvestism and Transsexuality: Reflections on Their Etiology and Differentiations”. The American Journal of Psychotherapy, 11, 1957: 80-5. Reprinted in Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds) Virginia Prince: Pioneer of Transgendering. The Haworth Medical Press, 2005: 17-20 and the International Journal of Transgenderism, 8,4, 2005: 17-20.
  • Arnold Lowman. Survey of Chemistry for Cosmetologists . New York: Milady Pub. Corp, 1959. Rev ed 1970.
  • Anonymous (Virginia Prince?) An Introduction to the Subject of Transvestism or Femmiphilia (Cross-Dressing). Foundation for Full Personality Expression. No date.
  • Virginia Prince (ed). Transvestia. Chevalier Publications. 1959 – 80.
  • Charles Leroy Lowman & Carl Haven Young. Postural fitness; significance and variances. . Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1960.
  • Charles Leroy Lowman & Susan G. Roen. Underwater therapy . Los Angeles: Rubel Memorial Library at Orthopaedic Hospital, 1961.
  • Virginia "Charles" Prince. The Transvestite and His Wife. Chevalier Publications, 1962. Argyle Books. 143 pp 1967. Reprinted by Sandy Thomas Publication as The Cross-dresser And His Wife, 1992.
  • V.C. Prince. "166 men in dresses". Sexology, 1962.
  • Anonymous (Virginia Prince). Double Switch . Chevalier Publications, 1964.
  • Harry Benjamin. The Transsexual Phenomenon. New York: Julian Press, 1966: 43, 49, 53-4,108.
  • Virginia Bruce. “The Expression of Femininity in the Male”. The Journal of Sex Research, 3,2,1967: 129-139. Reprinted in Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds) Virginia Prince: Pioneer of Transgendering. The Haworth Medical Press, 2005: 21-7 and the International Journal of Transgenderism, 8,4, 2005: 21-7.
  • Darrell Raynor. A Year Among the Girls . New York: Lyle Stuart, 1966. New York: Lancer Books, 1968.
  • Virgil Warner Fornas. Charles L. Lowman: His Role in Physical Education. University of Southern California: PhD Thesis, 1968.
  • Hugo Beigel. “A Weekend in Alice’s Wonderland”. Journal of Sex Research, 5, 1969: 108-122.
  • Virginia Prince. "Men Who Choose to be Women". Sexology Magazine, Feb 1969.
  • Anonymous (Virginia Prince). From Martin to Marion: A Transvestite Story in Three Parts (Three Complete Volumes) . Chevalier Publications, 1970.
  • Virginia Prince. How To Be A Woman Though Male. Chevalier Publications 193 pp 1971.
  • Virginia Prince and P.M. Bentler, “A Survey of 504 Cases of Transvestism,” Psychological Reports 31 (1972): 903—17.
  • Anonymous (Virginia Prince). The Turnabout (Turn About) Party . Chevalier Publications, 1972.
  • Anonymous (Virginia Prince). The Birth of Barbara . Chevalier Publications, 1973.
  • Virginia Prince. “Sex vs. Gender”. In D.R Laub & P. Gandy (eds). Proceedings of the Second Interdisciplinary Symposium on Gender Dysphoria Syndrome . Stanford Universiity Medical Center, 1973: 20-4. Reprinted in Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds) Virginia Prince: Pioneer of Transgendering. The Haworth Medical Press, 2005: 29-32 and the International Journal of Transgenderism, 8,4, 2005: 29-32.
  • Lois Armstrong. "Dr. Charles Lowman at Age 95 Is Still Straightening Out Kids", People, April 28, 1975.,,20065185,00.html.
  • Jack Nichols. Men's Liberation: A New Definition of Masculinity . New York: Penguin Books, 1975.
  • Deborah Heller Feinbloom. Transvestites & transsexuals: Mixed views . New York: Delta, 1976: 57-86, 98, 109.
  • Virginia Prince. Understanding Cross-Dressing. Chevalier Publications. 145 pp 1976.
  • Vern L Bullough, W. Dorr Legg, Barrett W. Elcano & James Kepner. An annotated bibliography of homosexuality . New York:: Garland Publ, 1976.
  • Virginia Prince. "Transsexuals and Pseudotranssexuals", Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7, 4, 1978: 263-272. Reprinted in Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds) Virginia Prince: Pioneer of Transgendering. The Haworth Medical Press, 2005: 33-7 and the International Journal of Transgenderism, 8,4, 2005: 33-7.
  • Virginia Prince. “The ‘Transcendents’ or ‘Trans’ People”. Transvestia, XVL, 95, 1978: 81-92. Reprinted in Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds) Virginia Prince: Pioneer of Transgendering. The Haworth Medical Press, 2005: 39-48 and the International Journal of Transgenderism, 8,4, 2005: 39-46.
  • Vern L. Bullough. Homosexuality: A History . New York: New American Library 1979: 136-7.
  • Virginia Prince. “Charles to Virginia: Sex Research as a Personal Experiencein Vern Bullough (ed), Frontiers of Sex Research . New York: Prometheus Books, 1979.
  • Lowman v. County of Los Angeles (1982) 127 Cal.App.3d 613 [179 Cal.Rptr. 709].
  • Virginia Prince. Bound in Drag. Charles Slavik, 1984.
  • Lee Grant (dir). What Sex Am I? [VHS] with Christine Jorgensen, Virginia Prince. US 58 mins color 1985.
  • Robert J.Stoller. Presentations of Gender . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985: 137.
  • Virgina Charles Prince. Handbook for speakers on cross dressing . 1987.
  • Richard F. Docter. Transvestites and Transsexuals: Toward a Theory of Cross-Gender Behavior (Perspectives in Sexuality) . New York: Plenum Press, 1988: 21-5, 46, 47, 130, 136, 145, 167, 214.
  • Annie Woodhouse. Fantastic Women . New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1989: 122-6.
  • Rudolph Grey. Nightmare of Ecstasy: Life and Art of Edward D. Wood, Jr. . Los Angeles: Feral House, 1992.
  • Vern L. Bullough & Bonnie Bullough. Cross dressing, Sex and Gender. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. xi, 382 pp 1993: 280-6, 292-3, 296, 302, 324, 326, 339, 345, 347, 348, 350.
  • Leslie Feinberg. Transgender Warriors : Making History from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman . Beacon Press, 1996: x.
  • Harry Hay and Will Roscoe. Radically Gay : Gay Liberation in the Words of Its Founder . Boston: Beacon Press, 1996: 37,52.
  • J. J. Allen.The Man in the Red Velvet Dress: Inside the World of Cross-Dressing . New York: Carol Pub. Group, 1996; 176-186.
  • Virginia Prince. "Gender Fundamentalists". Cross-Talk, October 1996.
  • Virginia Prince. "Seventy Years in the Trenches of the Gender Wars". In Bonnie Bullough, Vern L. Bullough, and James Elias. Gender Blending: Transvestism (Cross-Dressing), Gender Heresy, Androgyny, Religion & the Cross-Dresser, Transgender Healthcare, Free Expression, Sex Change Surgery . Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1997:469-479.
  • Richard F. Docter & Virginia Prince. "Transvestism: A survey of 1032 cross-dressers". Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26, 589-605, 1997.
  • Patrick Califia. Sex Changes: The Politics of Transgenderism . San Francisco, Calif: Cleis Press, 1997: 197-207.
  • Vern LBullough. “Virginia Prince”. In Vern LBullough (ed) Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context . New York: Harrington Park Press, 2002. Online at:
  • Meyerowitz, Joanne J. How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States . Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2002: 92, 181-2.
  • Stephen Whittle. “Adam and Eve? Virginia Prince, the first transgender person”. Sixth International Congress on Sex and Gender Diversity. The School of Law, Manchester Metropolitan University, 10th to 12th September 2004.
  • Richard F Docter. From Man to Woman: The Transgender Journey of Virginia Prince. Docter Press xiv, 149 pp 2004.
  • Susan Stryker "Prince, Virginia (b. February 1913), transgender activist, author". In Marc Stein (ed). Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender History in America (3 Volume Set) . New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons/Thomson/Gale, 2004.
  • Laura Granger & Joan Half. "A brief history of the Tiffany Club of New England." Tiffany Club of New England, 2004.
  • Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds). Virginia Prince: Pioneer of Transgendering. Haworth Press Inc., Paperback: 65 pages 2005.
  • Susan Stryker. "Foreward". In Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds). Virginia Prince: Pioneer of Transgendering: xv-xvi..
  • Richard F. Docter. "Virginia at 92". In Richard Ekins & Dave King (eds). Virginia Prince: Pioneer of Transgendering: 57-60.
  • Michel Hurst & Robert Swope. Casa Susanna. New York: PowerHouse Books, 2005.
  • J. Ari Kane-Demaios and Vern L. Bullough (eds). Crossing Sexual Boundaries: Transgender Journeys, Uncharted Paths . Prometheus Books 2005: 22-4.
  • Jane Ellen Fairfax. “A Brief History of Tri-Ess”. Tri-Ess, 01/26/06.
  • Richard Ekins & Dave King. Pioneer of Transgendering: The Life and Work of Virginia Prince. GENDYS 2k, The Sixth International Gender Dysphoria Conference, Manchester Eng. 2006.
  • Richard Ekins & Dave King. The Transgender Phenomenon . London: SAGE, 2006.
  • Robert S. Hill. ‘As a man I exist; as a woman I live’: Heterosexual Transvestism and the Contours of Gender and Sexuality in Postwar America. PhD Dissertation. University of Michigan. 2007.
  • Kate Cummings. Katherine's Diary William Heinemann Australia 1992. Revised and updated 2007: 105, 142, 144, 146, 185, 197, 282-5.
  • Richard F. Docter. Becoming a Woman: A Biography of Christine Jorgensen (Sexual Minorities in Historical Context) . New York: Routledge, 2008: xii, xxii, xxiii, xxvi, 7.
  • Susan Stryker. Transgender History . Berkeley: Seal Press. 2008: 46-7, 49, 50-7.
  • Rosemary Langton. “Vale Virginia Prince”. Seahorse, November 23rd, 2009.
  • Suzan Cooke. "Virginia Prince is Finally Dead". Women Born Transsexual, 05/03/2009.
  • Vanessa E. Foster. "Virginia Prince: The Passing Of A Trans Icon ". Trans Political, May 4, 2009.
  • Alice L100. ‘A History of the Beaumont Society’. The Beaumont Society, 2010.
  • Peter Farrer. Cross Dressing Since the War: Selections from Justice Weekly 1955-1972 . Liverpool: Karn Publications Garston, 2011: 14-5.
  • Jack Molay. "From "transgenderist" to "transgender" - on Virginia Prince and crossdresser separatism ". Crossdreamers, March 11, 2011.
  • Christine Parker. "The Definitive History of the Seahorse Society – 1967-2013". Seahorse, 30/12/2012.
Background. Details of other persons and events in Los Angeles were taken from:
  • Lillian Faderman & Stuart Timmons. Gay L. A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, And Lipstick Lesbians . New York: Basic Books, 2006.
  • Daniel Hurewitz. Bohemian Los Angeles: and the Making of Modern Politics . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
  • C. Todd White. Pre-Gay L.A.: A Social History of the Movement for Homosexual Rights . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.
  • Tom De Simone, Teresa Wang, Melissa Lopez, Diem Tran, Andy Sacher, Kersu Dalal, Justin Emerick. Lavender Los Angeles (Images of America) (Images of America (Arcadia Publishing)) . Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Pub, 2011.

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