30 km southwest of Florence is the comune of Empoli, and in Pozzale, a frazione thereof (a suddivision of a comune introduced in the Fascist period), there is a medium-security prison, which until 2010 was a women's prison.
By that date the Pozzale prison had a staff of 22 plus 6 Ministry of Justice employees but only 2 inmates. While nearby prisons were overcrowded, it had proved impossible to have some of their inmates transferred to Pozzale. Its former governor had been removed from his post because of difficulties in his personal relationships. A regional tribunal ordered his reinstatement but this never took place. In 2007 the ex-governor was sentenced to 11 years’ imprisonment for abuse of his office and other offences, but in 2009 the European Court of Human Rights condemned Italy for not giving him a fair trial.
- "Italy’s new Pozzale Prison for Transgender Inmates: A Photo Essay Waiting to Happen". Prison Photography, January 13, 2010.
- Pat Eggleton. "Italy to open world's first prison for transgender inmates". Italy Magazine, 01/14/2010.
- "La doppia sofferenza delle trans in carcere". La Repubblica, 28 agosto 2013.