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28 January 2008

Glossary E-F

An expression for female characteristics in a male. The opposite of Viraginity. But see also Effeminate.
In the seventeenth century, the word 'effeminate' had two different meanings: 1) a smooth-faced boy, who might transvest, and who was interested in being the passive partner in sodomy with an adult male; 2) a heterosocial male who spends a lot of time with women and was seen to have become infected with their ways - John Donne wrote :'thou call'st me effeminate, for I love women's joys'. By the eighteenth century, the second of these meanings had disappeared, and the first meaning became exclusive, also perhaps with a loss of the emphasis on youth. (See Molly). With the rise of modern Homosexuality in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, 'effeminate' changed to mean a man whose mannerisms were Camp. While some uninformed people still take effeminate and homosexual to be the same group, most homosexuals are not effeminate, and some effeminates are quite definitely Heterosexual, often with a wife and children and with no homosexual consciousness. An ironical observation often made of gay effeminate men is that they are often sexual tops. As we can see the word changing its meaning, reflecting changes in other gender roles, it is obviously a constructed role. Many politically conscious people would argue that it is a sexist label, that it is more of put down reflecting the speaker's neuroses than a useful description of any kind of cross-gendered person, and therefore that it should not be used. A woman is usually feminine, but can be masculine in general or in some traits. A man is usually masculine, can be feminine, and also can be effeminate. A woman is never described as effeminate. Therefore the word has no meaning other than to put down men who are not stereotyped in their appearance and behaviour. The word 'emasculate' seems to have a very similar meaning with regard to behaviour, although of course it could also refer to a physical condition. It never seems to be applied to masculine women as the mirror image of 'effeminate'. 'Emasculate' and 'effeminate' are opposites with the same meaning like 'flammable' and 'inflammable'. However there do seem to be men who fit the concept, who are feminine but not in a natural way. An exaggerated femininity similar to a certain type of drag show, although the effeminate man may not be on a stage as such. An excellent example of effeminacy would be Quentin Crisp. Perhaps we should use the word of females also if they exhibit exaggerated effeminacy.
Effeminate Street-Arab
A gender construction proposed by Iwan Bloch in 1907 taking a description presented by Brouardel at the Second Congress of Criminal Anthropologists in Berlin 1889: 'At the age from twelve to sixteen years the lad is still small, grasps ideas very slowly, and has little will-power. At the time of puberty he has experienced an inhibition of development, and his bodily growth has remained stationary. The penis is thin and flaccid, the testicles are small, the pubic hair is scanty, the skin is smooth, and the beard is very thin; the skeleton does not develop fully, like that of the normal male; the pelvis becomes wide, and the general outlines of the body become rounded because there is an undoubted deposit of fat in the subcutaneous tissues, so that the breasts also become enlarged.' The state is described as persisting in individuals of twenty-five to thirty years old. They are characterized by intellectual sterility and by incapacity for procreation. Brouardel thought that the type was also found among the middle classes , and from these the Decadents are recruited. This construction is heavily grounded in nineteenth century concepts of Degeneracy. A modern observer would be more concerned with the malnutrition of the 'street-arabs'. The lack of this type of androgyne shows that it is totally a construct.
A café in Berlin in the 1920s that was known as a transvestite hangout. The film Geheimnisse einer Seele (Secret of a Soul), 1925, was partly filmed there. Magnus Hirschfeld and Harry Benjamin visited the Café.
The Epilation of unwanted hair by inserting a fine needle into the hair follicle and discharging a small amount of electrical energy which destroys the hair growth tissue. This process had been available since the late nineteenth century. MTF transsexuals need electrolysis on their facial hair for, unlike chest and leg hair, it will not decline and disappear under the influence of estrogens. Most clients of electrologists are not transgender. Also see Laser Hair Removal.
MTF Two-Spirit among the Yuma, a tribe in the southwest of the USA. The Yumas see the Elxa role as connected to dreaming. A dream about a particular mountain that is associated with transformation, or of the arrowweed which they believe changes its sex, marks a boy as an Elxa. The acceptance of a boy is marked by a social gathering in which the new Elxa prepares a meal for friends of his family. The Yumas have casual but secret homosexuality among both men and women, but an Elxa quite openly marries a man.
The loss of masculine qualities. See Eviration and Effemination.
Enarees Also spelt Anarieis.
Hippocrates, speaking of the ancient Scythians, says: 'Moreover, there are among them many who are impotent and who do women's work, speaking like women. They are called Enarees. The people of the country attribute their condition to a divinity, honour them and prostrate themselves before them, each man fearing lest a similar affliction fall on him.' He attributes this to excessive horseback riding. 'When they go to a woman and cannot have intercourse with her, they are at first little perturbed, but then imagine that they have committed some sin against the god and put on women's clothing. They declare their impotence, live like women and devote themselves to feminine occupations. This illness attacks only rich men, those powerful by birth and wealth.' This is because the poor go on foot. Herodotus describes the Enarees as androgynous, and that they have a gift of prophecy from Aphrodite. He gives an etiological fable: as the army of the Scythians passed Ascalon in Syria, 'a small number of men got left behind and robbed the temple of Aphrodite Urania - the most ancient, I am told, of all the temples of this goddess.' These Scythians and all their descendants were punished with 'the feminine disease'. The Enarees are taken by modern scholars to be Shamans. Shamans of recent centuries are known to combine androgyny and cross-dressing with prophecy and other magical powers. Marie Delcourt sees in them an historical basis for the coincidence of prophecy and androgyny in Greek myth.
A term proposed by Havelock Ellis, as a category to be wider than Transvestism, in that it would include persons with cross-sexual identification who did not feel a need to cross-dress. This would include persons who nowadays would be called Transsexuals, and also such Literary Transvestites as James Tiptree Jr, or J.T. Leroy who present through their writing as the other gender for reasons that are primarily psychological rather than monetary. Ellis proposed the word on the model of Sadism and Masochism which had been proposed by Krafft-Ebbing from the famous examples of the condition and accepted into general usage. Charles/ Charlotte d'Eon de Beaumont, may arguable be regarded as an Eonist (although the counter argument has been expressed), but he was hardly a typical Eonist. In particular his refusal, to adopt female dress after having been ordered to do so by his king, is peculiar behaviour for an Eonist. His atypicality makes him a bad example to give the condition its name. The term is used by members of the Beaumont Society, but very little otherwise.
Removal of the entire hair, as opposed to Depilation, which is removal of the hair above the skin, e.g. by shaving. Most MTFs need to epilate facial hair to be convincing. The two major methods are Electrolysis and Laser Hair Removal.
a) the idea that a person’s gender is determined at birth and is invariable even if the person has a sex-change. Most transgender persons understandably regard this attitude as rude.
b) the idea that the transgender condition like that of homosexuality is found equally in all societies and is not the result of Social Construction.
c) the idea that transgender identity is congenital and is not the result of Self-Fashioning.
A steroid compound which occurs as the primary female sex hormone. It is formed primarily in the avaries, but also in small amounts in the adrenal cortex and the the testis. It produces breasts, feamle distribution of fat, and feminine skin. It also influences the menstrual cycle. It is prescribed in contraceptives, for hormone replacemnt after menopause, and for MTF transsexuals. It was first isolated in the 1930s, and became available on prescription in the 1940s.
The act of dressing in the assumed style of one’s own country of origin or ethnic group. The style is often referred to as 'national costume'. The variety of dress found in any particular country is usually much reduced in this kind of context, as a few, sometimes quite arbitrary items are evolved into a stereotype. Tourist marketing considerations can also enter into this, e.g. clan tartans have become regarded as an essential part of the Scottish national costume although they were not fixed until tourism became important in the mid-nineteenth century. Very different from Xenovestity.
The loss of masculine qualities. Logically, this word should have the opposite meaning to Effeminization, but it actually has the same meaning. See also Emasculation.
Extreme homosexual
An expression used mostly in the 1950s and 1960s for transgender persons when most people did not understand the difference between homosexuality and transgenderness.
An intermediate gender status found among the Samoans. As in various other cultures, this intermediate gender is open to biological males only. This is comparable to the idea in modern western society that men can be transvestites, but women, no matter how they dress, never are. Samoa is an example of a society where a practice similar to transvestity has developed even though women and men both wore the same clothes. They wore a single piece of cloth, a lavalava, made of the same material and colours. However it is only essentially the same. The style is quite different: men are careful to leave a large and suggestive end of the cloth flopping over the front; women in contrast tuck all ends in smoothly.
Facial Feminization Surgery (FFS)
A series of cosmetic surgical procedures to make a face more feminine. As a package it was pioneered by Douglas Ousterhout in the 1980s, although Tracheal Shave and silicone implants had been available in earlier decades. FFS is often more expensive that genital surgery.
False Consciousness of gender
To confuse gender (the difference between male and female) with its social expressions: clothes, colours, body language etc. Discussions of gender often become stuck on false consciousness trivia, which gets in the way of a discussion of the substantial issues.
False Disguise
As opposed to 'true disguise'. Roger Baker proposes a distinction, in a theatrical context, between true disguise where you accept the persona presented (e.g: boy actresses in sixteenth century, cross acting, Othello in black-face), and false disguise where the focus in on the impersonation (e.g: a modern drag show, a pantomime dame, black-face minstrels). In the latter the audience is supposed to think about the quality of the drag; in the former the audience is supposed to be concentrating on the story. Of course the boundary sometimes breaks down. Hamlet as a Breeches Part could swing between the two types. Baker points out that false disguise is a tradition that in England dates back only to the Restoration. Pre-Cromwell all female impersonation (there was no male impersonation then) was 'serious', an attempt at true disguise. We can compare this distinction to that between transvestity and Drag. Normally a Transvestite wishes to pass, therefore to effect a true disguise, while a Drag Queen wishes to flaunt the fact of the false disguise.
The ebb and flow of fashion has taken it into androgyny several times, especailly in the 1970s. Celebrities, especially music stars, have at times embraced androgyny as a fashion statement, e.g. David Bowie, Annie Lennox.
Faux Queens
Women who perform as Drag Queens. They differ from Female Impersonator Impersonators – as do Drag Queens from Transvestites – in not attempting to pass.
Despite the concerns of some, 'female' is not 'male' with a qualifier at the front. From the Latin word 'femina' ('woman') a diminutive 'femella' was evolved, which became 'femelle' in English. As it was used primarily as an adjective, the spelling became 'femal' This opened up an obvious association with 'male'. This error is now preserved as the standard spelling.
A person of whatever gender identity who was born with a female body, and has not (yet) had it altered by surgery.
Female Drag Queens
There are natal women who enjoy the same activities as Drag Queens do: that is dressing exuberantly, and indulging in exaggerated femininity. Amongst entertainers we could select Bette Midler or Dolly Parton as female drag queens, or Mame Dennis. Dolly has been quoted that if she had been born a man, what would she be: why a drag queen of course. Could we say of certain women that they are drag queens trapped in the body of a woman? See also Homovestity of which Female Drag Queens are one type, and Faux Queens.
Female Female Impersonator
1) a Female Impersonator Impersonator.
2) a woman, not transgender, who plays the role of a woman in life with distance and lack of enthusiasm. See Masquerade. See also Male Male Impersonator.
Female Husbands
a) Female-Bodied persons in the 18th and 19th centuries who passed and worked as men and took a woman as wife. Despite various attempts to interpret these persons as lesbians, or as straight women seeking to make a living, the simplest interpretation is that they were FTM transgender. Major examples include Charles Hamilton, who was made famous by Henry Fielding, John White the Ontario politician, Victor Barker the military man, Walter Sholto Douglas, the writer friend of Mary Shelley. b) A social role found in several African societies, notably the Igbo of Nigeria, where wealthy and influential women are permitted to take wives.
Female Impersonator, Male impersonator
Theatrical neologisms dating from the 1850s. These impersonators differed from the earlier Breeches Parts, Principle Boys and Dames in that they attempted Real Disguise. There is no exact lexical term in other languages. French has l'homme-protée and Italian imatatore but they more closely render 'quick-change artist' and 'impressionist'.
Female Impersonator Impersonator.
A person, usually a woman, who impersonates a Female Impersonator. E.g: the main character in Victor/Victoria.
FTM or F2M or F-M= female-to-male
Female Transsexual
Harry Benjamin’s misleading term for a trans man, that has been taken up by anti-transsexual writers.
Femininity, Feminine
The cultural expectations and gender roles that female persons have to accept, reject or pick from. A package that sometimes looks attractive to male persons dealing with Masculinity.
The movement to improve the position of women in society. A minority of feminists are transphobic, e.g Mary Daly, Janice Raymond, Julie Bindel.
'Love of the feminine'. An expression coined by Virginia Prince and propagated by the Sorority for the Second Self. It reflects the ideology that transvestites are not homosexual and not transsexual. A femiphile loves a female person, loves females things and loves femininity.
Usually the opposite of butch, e.g. femme and butch lesbians. Also used for (ef)feminate gays, or for a the feminine of several personae of the same person.
Femme Name
The female name used by probably a male heterosexual transvestite, who probably does not care for the expression Nom de Drag.
A concept developed in the eighteenth century as a stage in the evolution of religion, and in the late nineteenth century applied to sexual behaviour. In the latter case it signifies arousal by either body parts or by objects, especially clothing associated with a body. A clothing fetish may be for clothing worn by oneself, or by another. The concept is tainted by its frequent use by those who would pathologize transgender behaviour.
Fetishistic Transvestitism
Certain psychoanalysts and others want to regard fetishism as the essence of male transvestity. They do not differentiate between transvestites who completely dress as women, for whatever reason, and go out so dressed, and men who dress purely at home for erotic arousal. Whilst some of the former group may be sexually active, or go through an early fetishistic stage, many of the latter only dress for sex and never go out dressed. Kurt Freund used the expression “cross-dressed fetishism” with regard to his patients, and his successor, Ray Blanchard, renamed it as Autogynephilia. Most fetishistic transvestites are certainly not autogynephilic transsexuals. Fetishistic female transvestites have managed to remain unnoticed by psychoanalysts and doctors such as Freund and Blanchard.
A female-impersonation review in San Francisco. It started as a small cafe managed by Marjorie and Joseph Finocchio. In 1937 it moved to a larger location at 506 Broadway where it has been presenting drag shows ever since.
Former Transsexual
Either a Post-Transsexual who has completed transition, or a Changeback who has detransitioned. Some one who no longer acts like or thinks of themselves as a Transsexual.
A skirt and top combined. Possibly derived from the Latin 'floccus'='flock', the word was used originally for a monk's habit, and the clothing of other religious professionals. When the clergy still wore a skirt but other men did not, the word came to designate a skirt with a top. By extension, a long coat became a 'frock coat'. Women continued to wear skirts, and the word 'frock' came to mean a female garment.
Frohlich's Syndrome Also known as adiposogenital dystrophy.
A condition found only in males where the genitals are very small and the body shape and fat distribution is that of a female. It is caused by hypothalamic malfunction or by a tumour in the anterior pituitary gland. Other symptoms include low blood pressure, low blood sugar and low body temperature. Diabetes may develop. If it is caused by a tumour, drowsiness and headaches will likely occur. Over activity of the pituitary gland in the early stages may cause excessive growth of the jaw. Hydrocephalus (excessive cranial fluid) may develop and, as the bones of the skull have already hardened, it bulges the thinner parietal areas.
A part of the Real-Life Test or of Transition. Living as the target gender all the time instead of only some of the time.
Wendy Doniger (O'Flaherty) distinguishes between Fusing and Splitting androgynes. A fusing androgyne is a coming into one of what was previously a separate male and female entity. If two males fuse we get an andrander and if two females a gynogyne. However the fusion is often a failure producing a composite that is just that with an obvious and with the result that the fusion is either dominantly male or dominantly female. Traditionally marriage is regarded as a fusion of one male and one female into a single person, a tradition that was long used to deny women the vote. In psychological androgyny the achievement of maturity is a sort of fusion, of the conscious self with the repressed other.

1 comment:

helen_boyd said...

G - Z now, please. pretty please.